An adult Texas Horned Lizard from Ellsworth County, Kansas. © Lisa Wehrly.
Adult Texas Horned Lizard from Chase County.  © Mark Herff.
An adult Texas Horned Lizard.
An adult Texas Horned Lizard from Stanton County. © Travis W. Taggart.
An adult Texas Horned Lizard from Barber County, Kansas. © Travis W. Taggart.
REPTILIA (Reptiles) SQUAMATA (PART) (Other Lizards) PHRYNOSOMATIDAE (Sand and Spiny Lizards)

Texas Horned Lizard
Phrynosoma cornutum (Harlan 1825)
frī-nō-sō-mă — kŏr-nū-tŭm


Conservation Status:

State: None

Federal: None
NatureServe State: S4 - Apparently Secure
NatureServe National: N4 - Apparently Secure
NatureServe Global: G4 - Apparently Secure
CITES: None
Diagnosis:
HARMLESSLY TOXUNGENIC: The Texas Horned Lizard is distinctive. The harmless so-called “horny toad” is flat-bodied yet formidable in appearance. The Texas Horned Lizard is characterized by four limbs, an ear opening on each side of the head, extremely rough, raised scales on its body, and large spines projecting out from the back of the head. The general color of this lizard ranges from yellowish brown to reddish brown. There is a dark brown blotch on each side of the neck and a series of dark spots on each side of the back separated by a yellow or white line. The belly is white with a few small gray spots. External sexual differences are few, but females grow slightly larger than males.
Adults normally 64-100 mm (2½-4 inches) in TL. Females grow larger than males. The largest specimen from Kansas is a female (FHSM 7469) from Stevens County with a SVL of 90 mm and a TL of 123 mm (4½ inches) collected by Travis W. Taggart and Curtis J. Schmidt on 31 May 2002. The maximum length throughout the range is 181 mm (7­1⁄8 inches) (Powell et al., 2016).

Distribution:
The Texas Horned Lizard is locally abundant across much of Kansas. It avoids most of the High Plains north of the Arkansas River basin, northeast Kansas east and north of the Blue and Kansas rivers. Areas of peak abundance include the Smoky Hills (between the Dakota Sandstone and the Fort Hays Limestone), the Flint Hills south of Pottawatomie County, the Cross Timbers, the Red Hills, and the High Plains south of the Kansas River.
Range-wide the Texas Horned Lizard is found from north-central Kansas to southeast Arizona, southeast (east of the Sierra Madre Occidental) to northern Veracruz, Mexico, then along the Gulf of Mexico coast to southeast Texas and north to southwest Missouri and east central Kansas. There many reports of this species from elsewhere in the United States that likely represent released or escaped pets.
(,   Museum Voucher) (,   Observation) (,   Literature Record) (,   iNat Record), (  Fossil)
Open icons are questionable records; Click on a marker to view details.
Full range depicted by light shaded red area. Export Google Earth (.kml)
  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 1,302
    Records 
  • 1,070
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 232
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):
Allen (9); Anderson (1); Atchison (1); Barber (157); Barton (5); Bourbon (2); Butler (5); Chase (65); Chautauqua (7); Clark (66); Cloud (1); Comanche (36); Cowley (42); Crawford (1); Dickinson (7); Douglas (6); Edwards (1); Elk (41); Ellis (98); Ellsworth (40); Finney (1); Ford (4); Geary (17); Gove (1); Grant (2); Greenwood (23); Hamilton (8); Harper (24); Harvey (4); Hodgeman (1); Johnson (1); Kearney (1); Kingman (6); Kiowa (28); Labette (9); Lincoln (9); Lyon (4); Marion (2); McPherson (8); Meade (90); Mitchell (3); Montgomery (4); Morton (91); Osborne (9); Ottawa (9); Phillips (3); Pottawatomie (1); Pratt (27); Riley (78); Rooks (4); Rush (1); Russell (104); Saline (18); Sedgwick (4); Seward (16); Smith (4); Stanton (11); Stevens (7); Sumner (3); Trego (5); Unknown (40); Wabaunsee (14); Wilson (12);

Fossil History:
Pleistocene fossil specimens are known from Meade County.
Fossils from the Cragin Quarry Local Fauna of Meade County (Pleistocene: Sangamonian) (Hay 1917; Etheridge 1958; Etheridge 1960, Tihen 1960; Tihen 1962; Brattstrom 1967; Preston 1979; Holman 1995) are assignable to this taxon.

Natural History:
The Texas Horned Lizard generally inhabits dry, flat areas with sandy, loamy, or rocky surfaces and little vegetation. It is active from April to September and is strictly diurnal, spending the day basking in the sun, foraging for food, or hiding just below the soil surface. Its coloration makes it difficult to observe. Little is known of its daily cycle, but its temperature preference may be higher than that of many other lizards. Heinrich and Kaufman (1985) observed these lizards active between 16 May and 6 July along gravel trails and in upland tall-grass prairie habitat on the Konza Prairie near Manhattan.
Texas Horned Lizards are toxungenic (toxin delivered to body surface without accompanying wound). Texas Horned Lizards produce toxins that renders them distasteful to canids (dogs). Their antipredator toxins are carried in the circulating blood and can be purposefully squirted from the rear corner of each eye socket in response to a predation attempt (Sherbrooke and Middendorf, 2004). Under captive conditions, Collins (1993) observed coyotes bite a specimen of this lizard, drawing blood from the head and licking the blood before consuming the lizard. The coyotes showed no ill effects. Taggart (1992) found one of these lizards in Russell County on 4 July at an air temperature of 97°F; it squirted blood on him when he picked it up.The Texas Horned Lizard retreats to shade to escape the heat during mid-day and may burrow into loose soil at night. When a warm Texas Horned Lizard is picked up, it may emit a stream of blood from the back of the eyes. This significance of this behavior is not understood.
Although this lizard is well known to many people and has an extensive range, few observations on its breeding habits have been made in Kansas. Males apparently emerge from winter inactivity earlier than females, and mating probably occurs no earlier than May or June. Courtship is unknown. Each female probably lays a single clutch of eggs per season, with an average of 23 eggs (Fitch, 1985), in a nest dug in loose soil or under rocks. Burt and Hoyle (1934) recorded a female from Cowley County that laid seven eggs in early June. Incubation requires one to two months.
Burt and Hoyle (1935) reported a newly-captured female Texas Horned Lizard from Cowley county, Kansas, that laid seven yellowish eggs while it was kept in a sunny location at a window on 5-6 June 1933. The eggs hatch from mid-July through August.
Ants make up the major part of this lizard's diet, but other small insects and spiders are also eaten. This lizard is active by day and spends most of its time at ground level searching out small invertebrate prey (particularly Harvester Ants [Pogonomyrmex spp.]). Hartman (1906) examined a specimen that had consumed a great number of small beetles.

Occurrence Activity:
Number of Unique Obervations (=days): 182; Range: 02 Jan to 04 Nov
Remarks:
The Texas Horned Lizard was first reported from Kansas by Hallowell (1857) and included no more specific locality than Kansas. The earliest specimens (United States National Museum [USNM 14428, 293187]) were collected on 4 September 1885 in "southern Kansas" (no other data).
Harlan (1825) described the Texas Horned Lizard from "the great plains east of the Rocky Mountains". Smith and Taylor (1950) subsequently restricted the type locality to Fort Riley, Geary County, Kansas. Restricted type localities carry no weight in nomenclatural priority.
Over the past 40 years, populations of Texas Horned Lizards in Texas have dramatically declined. Although the culprit leading to the decline has yet to be positively identified, a leading theory correlates their disappearance to the spread of the introduced Red Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) and the concomitant reduction of the the native ants due to the pesticides used to control Red Fire Ants. The Red Fire Ant was introduced accidentally into the United States around the 1930s and has steadily spread northward. Red Fire Ants are not established within Kansas and Kansas populations of Phrynosoma cornutum are stable.Platt (1985, 1998) reported the absence of Texas Horned Lizards during his studies of Harvey County populations over 40+ years, despite there being a historical record for the area. This pattern of disappearance is similar to that shown by the Lesser Earless Lizard, albeit somewhat delayed. Further survey work is needed especially in those areas specimens were not found during this study. The continued monitoring of this species should also be a priority.
Harlan (1825) makes the following statement regarding the Texas Horned Lizard in his original description "...is elegantly proportioned; its beauty indeed is such as to attract the attention and excite the admiration of the most superficial observer. I consider it unnecessary to enter into any further detail, in order to discriminate this species from that to which it is most nearly allied..."
Finger et al. (2022) conducted a range-wide systematic assessment of the Texas Horned Lizard, concluding that the strong evidence of admixture, gene flow, and mtDNA introgression among populations suggests that P. cornutum should be considered a single widespread species.
Although the Texas Horned Lizard is widespread in Kansas, Platt et al. (1974) recommended that it be protected by law to prevent commercial exploitation by the pet trade. Texas Horned Lizards are difficult to maintain in captivity, and most captive individuals die from improper care.
Based on a captive specimen, Snider and Bowler (1992) reported a maximum longevity for this lizard of one year, one month, and 24 days.

Bibliography:
1825 Harlan, Richard. Description of a new species of Agama. Journal of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia 4():296-304
Contains the original description of the Agama cornuta (=Phrynosoma cornutum) page 299.
1856 Hallowell, Edward. Notice of a collection of reptiles from Kansas and Nebraska presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences, by Doctor Hammond, U. S. A. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 8():238-253
Contains reference to twenty-four species collected from 'Kansas', and includes the original description of Microps lineatus (=Tropidoclonion lineatum) from Kansas on page 241.
1859 Hallowell, Edward. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean Vol. X, Part IV, No. 1, Washington, D. C. 1-27pp.
1860 Cope, Edward D. Supplement to "A catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy," etc. Supplement to "A catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy" etc 12():72-74
1880 Cragin, Francis W. A preliminary catalogue of Kansas reptiles and batrachians Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 7():112-123
Also listed the Scarlet Snake (Cemophora coccinea) [=Ophibolus doliatus var. coccineus] and Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) [=Spelerpes ruber] from Kansas.
1882 Yarrow, Henry C. Check list of North American Reptilia and Batrachia with catalogue of specimens in U. S. National Museum. Bulletin of the United States National Museum (24):1-249
A summary of all herpetological species known at the time, with reference to specimens in the United States National Museum. Including one three Acris blanchardi from Fort Riley; Agkistrodon contortrix from Fort Riley; three Ambystoma mavortium from "Kansas" and another from Fort Riley; one Anaxyrus woodhousii from "Kansas"; one Anaxyrus cognatus from "Kansas" and another from Fort Riley; one Carphophis vermis from Fort Scott; three Coluber constrictor from "Kansas" and two from Fort Riley; one Crotalus horridus from 1858; one Diadophis punctatus from Hyatt [Hyette sic], Kansas (Anderson County); one Graptemys pseudogeographica from the Republican River in Kansas;   two Heterodon nasicus from Fort Riley; one Lampropeltis calligaster from Neosho Falls; one Lampropeltis holbrooki from Fort Riley, one from "Natchez", Kansas, and one other from Shawnee Mission, Kansas;one Lampropeltis gentilis from Fort Riley and one other from the Republican River, Kansas; one Pantherophis obsoletus from Fort Riley;fourteen Phrynosoma douglassi from "Kansas" and four from Fort Riley; three Phrynosoma cornutum from Fort Riley (Riley County);  three Pituophis catenifer from "Platte Valley", Kansas [likely from eastern Colorado prior to 1861] and two specimens from Fort Riley; one Plestiodon septentrionalis from Neosho Falls (Woodson County); one Plestiodon obsoletus from Fort Riley; one Thamnophis sirtalis from "Kansas"; one Nerodia sipedon from Fort Riley and another from Neosho Falls; one Scincella lateralis from Fort Scott (Bourbon County); one Thamnophis proximus from Fort Riley; four Sceloporus consobrinus from Fort Riley; one Tantilla nigriceps from Fort Riley; four Thamnophis sirtalis from "Kansas" and two from Little Blue River, Kansas; 
1886 Ebbutt, Percy G. Emigrant Life in Kansas Swan Sonnenschein and Company, Paternoster Square, London. 237pp.
Life around their homestead, seven miles from Parkerville along the Neosho River, in Morris County, Kansas. A lot of tales so tall as to render doubt on the few plausible scenarios presented. References to the deafening sounds of toads, as well as the abundance of lizards (including chameleons), and snakes. Many references to hunting and killing snakes. Many references to 'rattlesnakes' however, we can't tell what species they are. Includes an illustration of a Texas Horned Lizard and four illustrations of individuals killing snakes.
1900 Cope, Edward D. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Pages 153-1270 in Report of the U. S. National Museum for the Year Ending June 30, 1898 , Washington, D. C. pp.
1906 Hartman, Frank A. Food habits of Kansas lizards and batrachians. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 20():225-229
1916 Householder, Victor H. The Lizards and Turtles of Kansas with Notes on Their Distribution and Habitat. Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 100pp.
1920 Taylor, Edward H. The Lizards of Kansas with Notes on Habits. Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 117pp.
Though Dr. Taylor's thesis lists 1916 as the publication date (as does version that the KHS published in 1993). His degree was not awarded until 1920, which is the official publication date.
1927 Burt, Charles E. An annotated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Riley County, Kansas. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (189):12
Accounts on forty species known from the vicinity of Manhattan, Riley County, Kansas. There have been several scientific names changes since publication, which is understandable... however, some usages cannot be explained by subsequent taxonomic reappraisals(e.g.  Gastrophryne carolinensis for Gastrophryne olivacea). The writer lists Eumeces (=Plestiodon) obsoletus and E. guttulatus yet correctly reasoning that the latter is the young of the former. Within the account of Tantilla gracilis (a common form) the writer mentions that T. nigriceps was reported from Riley County by Branson (1904) but that the specimens at Kansas State were absent at the time of publication. The Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) was first reported from Riley County by Branson (1904) and is reported by the writer based on a specimen in the museum at Kansas State University by Professor E. A. Popenoe. The Prairie Rattlesnake is not currently native to Riley County, and closest reliable localities are 150 to the west.
1928 Burt, Charles E. A key to the species of lizards definitely reported from Kansas. Privately printed, Enterprise Press, Bristow, Nebraska. pp.
Essentially a separate from the writer's "Lizards of. Kansas" which was in-press in the Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis (Burt 1928. 26(1):1-81). Includes a glossary and a note on the variation in Sceloporus undulatus thayerii (= Sceloporus consobrinus).
1928 Burt, Charles E. Insect food of Kansas lizards with notes on feeding habits. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 1(3):50-68
1928 Burt, Charles E. The lizards of Kansas. Transactions of the Academy of Science St. Louis 26(1):1-81
1929 Taylor, Edward H. List of reptiles and batrachians of Morton County, Kansas, reporting species new to the state fauna. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 19(6):63-65
Annotated listing of 25 species discovered in southwest Morton County just prior to the Dust Bowl that wreaked havoc on the region and the subsequent creation of the Cimarron National Grassland. Of special note are Heterodon platirhinos, Thamnophis marcianus, and Anaxyrus debilis (all of which have not been found in the area since).
1933 Stejneger, Leonhard and Thomas Barbour. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 3rd Edition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. pp.
Reference to Kansas is the listed range of several species.
1933 Burt, Charles E. Some distributional and ecological records of Kansas reptiles. Transactions of the Academy of Science St. Louis 26():186-208
1934 Brennan, Lawrence A. A check list of the amphibians and reptiles of Ellis County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():189-191
1934 Burt, Charles E. and W. L. Hoyle. Additional records of the reptiles of the central prairie region of the United States. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():193-216
1935 Brennan, Lawrence A. Notes on the Distribution of Amphibia and Reptilia of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 114pp.
1935 Burt, Charles E. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16(3):311-366
1936 Hurd, Myron Alec. The reptiles of Cherokee County, Kansas. Thesis. Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, Kansas. 103pp.
Under the supervision of thesis adviser Harry H. Hall. Report on 38 species (8 turtles, 7 lizards, and 23 snakes)... most unsubstantiated. Interesting inclusion are Crotalus horridus, Crotalus viridis, Kinosternon subrubrum, Opheodrys vernalis, and Phrynosoma cornutum.
1936 Brumwell, Malcolm J. Distributional records of the reptilia and amphibians of Kansas. Privately printed, . 22pp.
County dot maps of the Kansas herpetofauna. This work has been attributed to have been written around 1933, but that may be in error. 
Hypsiglena jani was not known from Kansas until Claude W. Hibbard collected three specimens on the Stevenson Ranch in north-central Clark County (above Clark State Lake) during June 1936 (Hibbard, 1937). Brumwell plotted this locality, which leads me to believe that the 1936 would have been the earliest date this manuscript could have been written.
1937 Brennan, Lawrence A. A study of the habitat of reptiles and amphibians of Ellis County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 40():341-347
1939 Tihen, Joseph A. and James M. Sprague. Amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of the Meade County State Park Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 42():499-512
1947 Hall, Henry H. and Hobart M. Smith. Selected records of reptiles and amphibians from southeastern Kansas Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 49(4):447-454
Report on certain Kansas specimens housed in the collection at what is now Pittsburg State University. Included are several species of dubious status today, including Cryptobranchus alleganiensis from the Neosho and Spring rivers (the only specimens from those significant drainages ever documented), Ambystoma maculatum from just north of Pittsburg, Crawford County, Heterodon nasicus from Crawford County, Opheodrys vernalis from Crawford County, Sonora episcopa from Crawford County, Agkistrodon piscivorus from Cherokee County, Crotalus atrox from Crawford County, and Crotalus viridis from Crawford County. They report several significant range extensions including Kinosternon flavescens from Turkey Creek in southeast Cherokee County, Graptemys geographica from just north of Pittsburg, Crotaphytus collaris from near Columbus, Cherokee County, Sceloporus consobrinus from just north of Pittsburg, Phrynosoma cornutum from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Heterodon platirhinos from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Haldea striatula from Crawford County, Sistrurus tergeminus from Crawford County, and a 402 lb Macrochelys temminckii in Cherokee County from just east of Chetopa (Labette County). They allude to the potential for Anaxyrus fowleri to occur in southeast Kansas and for native populations of Crotalus atrox in south central Kansas (in part from the disclosure that John R. Breukelman [then of ESU] had obtained three specimens in Woods County Oklahoma, 3/4 of a mile south of the Kansas line). None of the specimens the paper was based on, exist today.
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
The first modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table and text say 97 on p. 10) and 13 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies.
1950 Smith, Hobart M. and Edward H. Taylor. Type localities of Mexican reptiles and amphibians. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 23 Pt II(8):313-380
1952 Reeve, Wayne L. Taxonomy and distribution of the horned lizards genus Phrynosoma. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 34(14):817-960
1953 Schmidt, Karl P. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 280pp.
Schmidt's first edition of his standardized checklist to North American amphibians and reptiles. Includes several specific references to Kansas in the range descriptions.
1954 Oelrich, Thomas M. A horned toad, Phrynosoma cornutum, from the Upper Pliocene of Kansas. Copeia 1954(4):262-263 + 1 plate
1956 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. Second edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (9):1-356
Hobart M. Smith's updated second edition of his first (1950) modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table says 97 on p. 10; text says 98 on p. 10) and 11 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies. The second edition has updated taxonomy, added Plestiodon laticeps, and removed Eurycea tynerensis.
1956 Loomis, Richard B. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 37():1195-1443
Examined 2,628 Kansas reptiles of 48 species consisting of 27 turtles of 4 species, 1,736 lizards of 12 species and 892 snakes of 32 species for chiggers. Eleven species of chiggers were recovered from reptiles.
For amphibians, 1188 individuals of 21 species were examined. Five species of chigger mite were recovered from amphibians.
1958 Smith, Ronald E. Natural history of the Prairie Dog in Kansas. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publications (16):1-36
1960 Hibbard, Claude W. and Dwight W. Taylor. Two Late Pleistocene Faunas from southwestern Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan 16(1):1-223
1960 Etheridge, Richard E. Additional notes on the lizards of the Cragin Quarry fauna. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 45():113-117
1960 Etheridge, Richard E. The Pliocene lizard genus Eumecoides Taylor. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 59(2):62-69
1962 Gish, Charles D. The Herpetofauna of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 34pp.
1964 Hibbard, Claude W. A contribution to the Saw Rock Canyon Local Fauna of Kansas. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 49():115-127
1965 Clarke, Robert F. Lizards in Kansas. Kansas School Naturalist 11(4):1-16
1967 Choate, Jerry R. Wildlife in the Wakarusa Watershed of Northeastern Kansas. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 46pp.
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
Joseph T. Collins first Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Smith 1956)>
1974 Platt, Dwight R., Joseph T. Collins, and Ray E. Ashton, Jr. Rare, endangered and extirpated species in Kansas. II. Amphibians and reptiles. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 76(3):185-192
The initial initiative to determine population and conservation status of Kansas' amphibians and reptiles based on our understanding at the time. A lot has changed regarding our increased knowledge on all the listed species.
1974 Karns, Daryl, Ray E. Ashton, Jr., and Thomas Swearingen. Illustrated Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas: An Identification Manual. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History Public Education Series(2):viii + 18
1975 Rundquist, Eric M. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kingman County, Kansas. Privately Printed, Lawrence, Kansas. 3pp.
Short accounts for twenty-nine recognized amphibians and reptiles from Kingman County, Kansas. With habitat descriptions and for some species, estimates of population density.
1975 Capron, Marty B. A trip through the Kansas Flint Hills. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (8):4-5
1976 Rundquist, Eric M. Field checklist (of) amphibians and reptiles of Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society, Lawrence. pp.
1977 Smith, Hobart M. and Anthony J. Kohler. A survey of herpetological introductions in the United States and Canada. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 80(1/2):241-
1978 Curl, Richard L. Final Environmental Statement: Milford Lake Kansas operation and maintenance. US Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District. 158pp.
Notable mentions: Spotted Salamander, Smooth Green Snake
1978 Capron, Marty B. Four county collecting raid: A south central Kansas herping saga. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (26):9-12
1978 Collins, Joseph T. and Janalee P. Caldwell. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1977. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 6():70-88
1979 Ports, Mark A. Occurrence and density studies of nongame wildlife in southwestern Kansas - May 16-August 16, 1979. Kansas Fish and Game Commission, Pratt, Kansas. 83pp.
1979 Holman, J. Alan. Herpetofauna of the Nash local fauna (Pleistocene: Aftonian) of Kansas. Copeia 1979(4):747-749
1980 Clarke, Robert F. Herptiles and fishes of the western Arkansas River in Kansas. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 55pp.
A summary of known information on the amphibian, reptile, and fish faunas of the Arkansas River above Great Bend. The report details associated field activities for procuring fish, however no new surveys for amphibians and reptiles were undertaken. Information on herps from Finney County was provided by Michael Rush (FHSU) and thus made available before the publication of his thesis (Rush, 1981). The western Arkansas River drainage had experienced little attention by herpetologists before this study, and the species accounts reflect that paucity of data. Additionally, the report omits several older records (e.g. for Anaxyrus debilisThamnophis cyrtopsis, and Lampropeltis calligaster) from the westernmost reaches of the Arkansas River drainage in Kansas.
1980 Spencer, Dwight. Spencer, D. 1980. Ross Natural History Reservation: the first twenty years, 1959 to 1979. Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas.. 64pp.
1980 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1979. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 9():1-11
1981 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1980. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 10():7-19
1981 Eshelman, Ralph E. and Claude W. Hibbard. Nash Local Fauna (Pleistocene: Aftonian) of Meade County, Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan 25(16):317-326
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
Joseph T. Collins second Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1974)>
1984 Brown, Kenneth L. Pomona: A plains village variant in eastern Kansas and western Missouri. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 519pp.
1984 Heinrich, Mark L. Herpetofauna of the Konza Prairie Research Natural Area in the Flint Hills region of Kansas with respect to habitat selection. Thesis. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. 57pp.
1984 Secor, Stephen M. and Charles C. Carpenter. Distribution maps of Oklahoma reptiles. Oklahoma Herpetological Society Special Publication (3):1-57
1985 Miller, Larry L. KHS 1985 field trip to Kirwin Reservoir. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (61):11-12
1985 Schultze, Hans-Peter, L. Hunt, J. Chorn, and A. M. Neuner. Type and figured specimens of fossil vertebrates in the collection of the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. Part II. Fossil amphibians and reptiles. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (77):1-66
Also check on several listed names not in KHA as KS taxa.
1985 Lynch, John D. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Science 13():33-57
1986 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1985. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (63):4
1986 Johnson, Tom R. In search of the "horny toad." Missouri Conservationist (September):Unpaginated
1987 Simmons, John E. September 1987 field trip report. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (69):42894
1987 Montanucci, Richard R. A phylogenetic study of the horned lizards, genus Phrynosoma, based on skeletal and external morphology. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Contributions in Science (390):1-36
1988 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1987. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (71):13-19
1988 Miller, Larry L. Harper County KHS field trip well attended. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (72):5-6
1988 Nulton, Michael T. and Michael S. Rush. New county records of amphibians and reptiles in Gray County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (74):10-12
1989 Hayward, S. and M. Hayward. Walks and Rambles on the Cimarron National Grassland.  TriState News, Elkhart, Kansas. 16pp.
1989 Collins, Joseph T. First Kansas herp counts held in 1989. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (77):11-
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Results of second Kansas herp count held during April-May 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):10-12
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Maximum size records for Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):13-17
1990 Price, Andrew H. Phrynosoma cornutum. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (469):1-7
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Reptiles and Amphibians of the Cimarron National Grasslands, Morton County, Kansas. U. S. Forest Service, Elkhart, Kansas. 60pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (83):7-13
1991 Collins, Joseph T. Results of third Kansas herp count held during April-May 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (85):9-13
1992 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (87):12-17
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Observations on Kansas amphibians and reptiles Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (88):13-15
1992 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the KHS 1992 fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (90):4
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
Joseph T. Collins third Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1982)>
1993 Carpenter, Charles C., Robert St. Clair, Paul Gier, and Caryn C. Vaughn. Determination of the distribution and abundance of the Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) in Oklahoma. Final Report to Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation, Federal Aid Project E-18., Norman, Oklahoma. 66pp.
1993 Viets, Brian E. An annotated list of the herpetofauna of the F. B., and Rena G. Ross Natural History Reservation. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 96(1/2):103-113
1994 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1993. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):15-19
1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):5-14
See, 1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Additions and corrections [to the results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994]. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):4.
1995 Holman, J. Alan. Pleistocene Amphibians and Reptiles. Oxford University Press, New York. 243pp.
1995 Sattler, Paul W., and J. Scott Ries. Intraspecific genetic variation among four populations of the Texas horned lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum. Journal of Herpetology 29(1):137-141
1996 Miller, Larry L. Results of the KHS 1995 fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (103):3
1996 Rakestraw, J. Spring herp counts: A Kansas tradition. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (March-April):75-80
1996 Dundee, Harold A. Some reallocations of type localities of reptiles and amphibians described from the Major Stephen H. Long Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, with comments on some of the statements made in the account written by Edwin James.  Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany 30():75–89
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the ninth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1997. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (108):12-17
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Addendum to 1997 KHS herp counts. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (109):14-15
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1998 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians & Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 131pp.
1998 Platt, Dwight R. Monitoring population trends of snakes and lizards in Harvey County, Kansas. Final Report. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 42pp.
1998 Henke, Scott E. and Wm. Scott Fair. Management of Texas Horned Lizards Caesar KIeberg Wildlife Research Institute, Kingsville, Texas. 7pp.
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the tenth annual KHS herp counts for 1998, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (112):11-18
1999 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas Herpetological Society herp counts: A 10 year summary and evaluation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (115):42962
2000 Burrow, Anna L. The effect of prescribed burning and grazing on the threatened Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) in the Western Rio Grande Plains. Thesis. Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. 157pp.
2000 Taggart, Travis W. KHS spring field trip sets record for attendance. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (120):5-5
2000 Taggart, Travis W. Biogeographic analysis of the reptiles (Squamata) in Ellis County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (121):7-16
2000 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eleventh and twelfth annual KHS herpetofaunal counts for 1999-2000, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (122):11-16
2001 Russell, T. Thermal ecology of the Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum). Thesis. Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. pp.
2001 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the thirteenth annual KHS herp counts for 2001, held 1 April-30 June. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):13-16
2001 Kretzer, Justin E. and Jack F. Cully, Jr. Effects of Blacktailed Prairie Dogs on reptiles and amphibians in Kansas shortgrass prairie. Southwestern Naturalist 46(2):171-177
2001 Reeder, Tod W., and Richard R. Montanucci. Phylogenetic analysis of the horned lizards (Phrynosomatidae: Phrynosoma): Evidence from mitochondrial DNA and morphology. Copeia 2001(2):309-323
2002 Kingsbury, Bruce and Joanna Gibson. Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Midwest. Publication of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, Address not given. 152pp.
2002 Collins, Joseph T., Travis W. Taggart Curtis J. Schmidt, and Suzanne L. Collins. Geographic distribution: Phrynosoma cornutum. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (2):10-11
2002 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the spring 2002 KHS field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (3):6-7
To the Cimarron National Grassland, in Morton and Stevens counties.
2002 Rundquist, Eric M. Natural history of the Night Snake, Hypsiglena torquata, in Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):16-20
2002 Owens, Audrey, Matthew Trager, and Eva Horne. Phrynosoma cornutum (Texas Horned Lizard). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 33(4):308-309
2003 Fogell, Daniel D. A herpetofaunal inventory of Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Homestead National Monument of America, and Pipestone National Monument within the Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.. 59pp.
This is the version the author submitted to the NPS. Their final publication was modified.
2003 Suleiman, G. Fort Riley herpetofaunal count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):11-12
2003 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 2002. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):13-16
2003 Platt, Dwight R. Lizards and snakes (Order Squamata) of Harvey County, Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):13-20
2003 Miller, Larry L. Sumner County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):10
2004 Schmidt, Curtis J. Attempted predation on a hatchling Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) by an adult Plains Leopard Frog (Rana blairi). Journal of Kansas Herpetology (10):12
2004 Hodges, Wendy L. Evolution of viviparity in horned lizards (Phrynosoma): testing the cold-climate hypothesis. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17():1230–1237
2004 Sherbrooke, Wade C. and George A. Middendorf III. Responses of Kit Foxes (Vulpes macrotis) to antipredator blood-squirting and blood of Texas Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum) Copeia 2004(3):652-658
2005 Taggart, Travis W. and Curtis J. Schmidt. Life history notes: Phrynosoma cornutum. New state maximum length. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (14):10
2005 Taggart, Travis W. and Curtis J. Schmidt. Phrynosoma cornutum (Texas Horned Lizard) new state maximum length Journal of Kansas Herpetology (14):10
2005 Taggart, Travis W. and Curtis J. Schmidt. Geographic distribution: Phrynosoma cornutum. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (14):11
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2006 Wilgers, Dustin J. and Eva A. Horne. Effects of different burn regimes on tallgrass prairie herpetofaunal species diversity and community composition in the Flint Hills, Kansas. Journal of Herpetology 40():73-84
2006 Dloogatch , Michael A. (Editor) Herpetology 2006 Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 41(6):111-114
Note on a paper by Wilgers and Horne (2006. Journal of Herpetology 40(1): 73-84) on herpetofaunal responses to burn regimes on the Kansas Flint Hills.
2006 Wilgers, Dustin J., Eva A. Horne, Brett K. Sandercock, and Allan W. Volkmann. Effects of rangeland management on community dynamics of the herpetofauna of the tallgrass prairie. 62():378-388
2008 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2008 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (25):2-3
2009 Kraus, Fred. Alien Reptiles and Amphibians: A Scientific Compendium and Analysis. SpringerVerlag, Heidelberg, Germany. 563pp.
2009 Murrow, Daniel G. KHS 2009 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (29):42769
2010 Miller, Larry L. Investigation of the Checkered Garter Snake in Kansas with notes on other Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles encountered. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 31pp.
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
Joseph T. Collins fourth Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1993)>
2010 Murrow, Daniel G. Kansas Herpetological Society spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (33):2-3
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 spring field trip to beheld in Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (37):5-7
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS Spring Field Trip to Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (38):2-4
2012 Rohweder, Megan R. Spatial conservation prioritization of Kansas for terrestrial vertebrates. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 151pp.
2012 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada: Second Edition, Revised and Updated. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 152pp.
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Summer Field Trip to Meade County State Park. Collinsorum 2(3/4):3
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Summer Field Trip to Coldwater Lake, Comanche County. Collinsorum 2(3/4):5
2013 Mardis, Dexter and Kevin Scott. 2013 Kansas Herpetofaunal Counts. Collinsorum 2(3/4):7
2013 Johnson, Stephen R. Half-time herping on one big prairie. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 48(5):65-66
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS Spring Field Trip to Barber County Collinsorum 3(2-4):11
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS summer field trip to Morton County and adjacent Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Collinsorum 3(2-4):12
2015 Rohweder, Megan R. Kansas Wildlife Action Plan. Ecological Services Section, Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism in cooperation with the Kansas Biological Survey. 176pp.
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Spring Field Trip to the Greenhorn Limestone of Russell County. Collinsorum 4(3):2
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Spring 2016 KHS field trip to Clark County was a soggy success. Collinsorum 5(2-3):2-3
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS ‘Fall’ field trip to Barber County. Collinsorum 5(2-3):6-7
2017 Taggart, Travis W. and J. Daren Riedle. A Pocket Guide to Kansas Amphibians, Turtles and Lizards. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, Kansas. 69pp.
2017 Crother, Brian I. (editor) Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Eighth edition. Herpetological Circulars (43):102
2017 Mardis, Dexter R. Results from three Herpetofaunal tallies at Wichita State University’s Youngmeyer Ranch in Northwestern Elk County. Collinsorum 6(1):8-10
2017 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2017 KHS Spring Field Trip to Elk County, Kansas. Collinsorum 6(2-3):6-8
2017 Schmidt, Curtis J. Herp Count: Southeast Ellis County. Collinsorum 6(2-3):9
2018 Houck, Mike. Herp Count: Fort Riley Military Installation Collinsorum 7(1):17
2019 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada. Third Edition. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 192pp.
2019 Hughes, D. F. , Walter E. Meshaka, Jr., C. Loeb, and Joseph H. K. Pechmann. Latitudinal variation in life history reveals a reproductive advantage in the Texas Horned Lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum. Copeia 107(4):736–747
2019 Hughes, D. F. , Walter E. Meshaka, Jr., C. Loeb, and Joseph H. K. Pechmann. Latitudinal variation in life history reveals a reproductive advantage in the Texas Horned Lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum. Copeia 107(4):736–747
2020 Daniel, Richard E. and Brian S. Edmond. Atlas of Missouri Amphibians and Reptiles for 2019. Privately printed, Columbia, Missouri. 86pp.
2020 Riedle, J. Daren. Revisiting Kansas Herpetological Society field trip and Herp Count data: Distributional patterns and trend data of Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Collinsorum 9(1):7-16
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Comanche County: KHS-2020-15. Collinsorum 9(3):13-14
2021 Taggart, Meg, Amelia Jaeger, Jesse J. Taggart, and Travis W. Taggart. Herp Count: Ellis County: KHS-2020-21. Collinsorum 9(3):14
2021 Taggart, Travis W. Herp Count: Russell County: KHS-2020-24. Collinsorum 9(3):14-15
2021 Taggart, Travis W., Dan Fogell, and Christopher Visser. Herp Count: Russell County: KHS-2020-25. Collinsorum 9(3):15
2021 Locklear, James H. The Sandsage Prairie ecological system: Biodiversity hotspot for the Great Plains. Natural Areas Journal 41(1):64-74
2021 Kohler, Gunther. Taxonomy of Horned Lizards, genus Phrynosoma (Squamata, Phrynosomatidae). Taxonomy 2021(1):83–115
2022 Finger, Nicholas, Keaka Farleigh, Jason T. Bracken, Adam D. Leache, Olivier Francois, Ziheng Yang, Tomas Flouri, Tristan Charran, Tereza Jezkova, Dean A. Williams, and Christopher Blair. Genome-scale data reveal deep lineage divergence and a complex demographic history in the Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) throughout the southwestern and central United States Genome Biology and Evolution 14(1):24
Advance access publication.
2023 Russell, Elisabeth Habitat associations and fine-scale movements of the Red-spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus) in Kansas and the efficacy of remote telemetry for monitoring small-scale movements. Thesis. Fort Hays STate University, Hays, Kansas. 81pp.
2024 Rhoads, Dustin Rehoming Texas. Help the horned lizard make a comeback. Texas Gardener 2024(January/February):32-35
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Travis W. Taggart © 1999-2024 — w/ Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University