An adult Eastern Milksnake from Leavenworth County. © John F. Tollefson.
An adult Eastern Milksnake from Franklin County. Image © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.
A pair of adult Eastern Milksnakes from Cherokee County. © Dan Murrow.
An adult from Douglas County, Kansas. Image © Bob Ferguson.
Adult Eastern Milksnake from Linn County. Image © Travis W. Taggart.
An Eastern Milksnake adult from Jefferson County. Image © Jim Scharosch.
An adult Eastern Milksnake from Franklin County. Image © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.
An adult Eastern Milksnake from Franklin County. Image © Jim Scharosh.
REPTILIA (Reptiles) SQUAMATA (PART) (Snakes) COLUBRIDAE (Harmless Egg-laying Snakes)

Eastern Milksnake
Lampropeltis triangulum (Lacepede, 1789)
lăm-prō-pĕl-tĭs — gĕn-tĭl-ĭs / trī-ăn-gū-lŭm


Conservation Status:

State: None

Federal: None
NatureServe State: S5 - Secure
NatureServe National: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Global: G5 - Secure
CITES: None
Diagnosis:
HARMLESS. The Eastern Milksnake is characterized by smooth scales, a single anal scale, two rows of scales on the underside of the tail, a bold white and black pattern on the belly, and brilliantly contrasting colors on its head, body, and tail. Specimens from eastern Kansas have a pattern of black-bordered bright red bands separated by narrower yellow, white, or cream bands. The top of the head is red. Although Eastern Milksnakes from the western two-thirds of Kansas have the same basic pattern, the tops of their heads are black or orange, and the large bands are orangish instead of red. Adult males grow larger than females.
No reliable method has been determined to differentiate the two putative species potentially occurring in Kansas, or even that the Eastern Milksnake (Lampropeltis triangulum) occurs in the state.
Adults normally grow 41.0-71.0 cm (16-28 inches) in total length. The largest specimen from Kansas is a male (KU 193235) from Anderson County with a total length of 85.8 cm (33¼ inches), collected by Harold A. Dundee on 9 May 1982. The maximum length throughout the range is 132.1 cm (52 inches) (Powell et al., 2016). The maximum weight for a Kansas specimen is 105 grams (just under 4 ounces).

Distribution:
Found north and east of the Neosho River and Flint Hills in Kansas. These snakes are typically associated with rocky areas. Only a few a few isolated specimens are known from the Neosho River drainage basin.
The Eastern Milksnake contacts the Western Milksnakes along the Kansas River near the Flint Hills and genetically intermediate specimens are known.
(,   Museum Voucher) (,   Observation) (,   Literature Record) (,   iNat Record), (  Fossil)
Open icons are questionable records; Click on a marker to view details.
Full range depicted by light shaded red area. Export Google Earth (.kml)
  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 317
    Records 
  • 292
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 25
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):
Allen (1); Anderson (15); Atchison (6); Bourbon (35); Cherokee (12); Coffey (1); Crawford (12); Doniphan (10); Douglas (70); Franklin (17); Jackson (1); Jefferson (33); Johnson (38); Leavenworth (12); Linn (13); Miami (26); Neosho (4); Osage (5); Shawnee (3); Wyandotte (3);

Fossil History:
Pleistocene fossil specimens are not known from Kansas.

Natural History:
Fleet (1970) studied the Eastern Milksnake in northeastern Kansas, and much of the information on habitat and breeding in Kansas is based on their observations.
Eastern Milksnakes in eastern Kansas frequent the rocky hillsides of open woods and woodland edge.
This species is active from April to November. It normally prowls actively by day, but during the hot summer it may become nocturnal, particularly in western Kansas. This snake rarely basks in the sun, preferring to remain hidden beneath sun-warmed rocks to maintain its optimal body temperature. During winter, the Eastern Milksnake retreats into dens on rocky wooded hillsides or into mammal burrows to avoid cold temperatures.
Mating in this species occurs during spring after emergence from winter inactivity. Little is known about courtship except that the male Eastern Milksnake bites the female on the neck a few centimeters behind the head to hold her during copulation. The eggs are laid in nests during June or July, and the number of eggs per clutch varies from three to 24 (Fitch, 1985; Tryon and Murphy, 1982), with an average of five to seven. Collins (1982) reported a female from Douglas County which laid seven eggs on 2 July; she required four hours to complete laying the clutch, and all the eggs hatched on 31 August. Incubation probably requires about 40- 65 days, depending on the prevailing air temperature.
Prey is killed by constriction in this species. It feeds primarily on small lizards and snakes but also eats newborn mice. Henderson (1974) reported that Eastern Milksnakes from Douglas County feed on lizards, snakes, and rodents.
Predators of Eastern Milksnakes include birds, mammals, and larger snakes (Collins, 1993).

Occurrence Activity:
Number of Unique Obervations (=days): 97; Range: 20 Mar to 27 Nov
Remarks:
First reported in Kansas by Cope (1875) reporting on specimen(s) in the United States National Museum. The earliest existing specimens (KU 55398-400) are from Franklin County and collected on 1 May 1889 (collector unknown).
Cochran (1961) lists a paratype for Ophibolus doliatus syspilus as USNM 4291 (collected 'collected 95 miles west of Riley (in Clay County, Kansas)' [no date] by J. F. Hammond.
The taxonomy of this group is being worked out, fortunately, Kansas specimens are figuring prominently in those analyses. Ruane (2014) split L. gentilis from L. triangulum but with limited sampling along the contact zone at the Kansas/Missouri border. Ruane (2015) found that characteristics of head shape were able to accurately predict adult L. gentilis (90.6% of the time) and adult L. triangulum (78.6%). 
Chambers and Hillis (2019) reanalyzed Ruane's data, and presented an alternative hypothesis for the conspecifity of L. gentilis and L. triangulum. Burbrink and Ruane (2021) pointed out the methodological issues with their reanalysis.
Chambers and Hillis (2022) focused on the allelic frequency differences of milksnakes from western Missouri west across Kansas with some newly added specimens. They found that the largest shift in allele frequency (the contact zone) roughly correlated with the Flint Hills. They interpreted their findings as evidence for the conspecifity of L. gentilis and L. triangulum. However, the narrow contact zone (of such wide-ranging taxa) may be interpreted as a hybrid zone.
Additional data is being collected to bear on taxonomic status of milksnake populations in Kansas. For now, L. gentilis and L. triangulum are treated here as different species. With L. gentilis occurring west of the Neosho River basin and Flint Hills, and L. triangulum to the east.
Platt et al. (1974) recommended prohibition of the capture, transport, and sale of these animals in Kansas, due to the high demand for them in the commercial pet trade.
Based on a captive specimen, Snider and Bowler (1992) reported a maximum longevity for this species of 21 years, four months, and fourteen days.

Bibliography:
1789 Lacepede, Bernard G. de. Histoire naturelle des quadrupèdes ovipares et des serpens. Tome Second. [Natural history of oviparous quadrupeds and serpents. Second volume.] Hotel de Thou, Rue des Poitevins, Paris, France. 671pp.
Contains the original description of Coluber triangulum (=Lampropeltis triangulum) page 86 and Crotalus piscivorus (=Agkistrodon piscivorus) age 130. In French.
1856 Hallowell, Edward. Notice of a collection of reptiles from Kansas and Nebraska presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences, by Doctor Hammond, U. S. A. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 8():238-253
Contains reference to twenty-four species collected from 'Kansas', and includes the original description of Microps lineatus (=Tropidoclonion lineatum) from Kansas on page 241.
1860 Cope, Edward D. Catalogue of the Colubridae in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes and descriptions of new species. Part 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 12():241-266
Report on Diadophis occipitalis (=Diadophis punctatus) from 'central Kansas' (page 250), three Lampropeltis calligaster collected Dr. Hammond (of Ft. Riley) in Kansas (page 255), four species of Lampropeltis doliata (=Lampropeltis gentilis) from Kansas collected by Dr. Hammond and compared against specimens from further east and Baird and Girard's Ophibolus gentilis (page 256-7).
1875 Yarrow, Henry C. Report upon the collections of batrachians and reptiles made in portions of Nevada, Utah, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona during the years 1871, 1872, 1873 and 1874. ():509-584
Reports Ophibolus doliatus annulatus (= Lampropeltis gentilis) from 'Kansas'. The first record from Kansas.
1875 Cope, Edward D. Check-list of North American Batrachia and Reptilia; with a systematic list of the higher groups, and an essay on geographical distribution. Based on the specimens contained in the U.S. National Museum. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 1():1-104
The first reference to Anaxyrus fowleri (nomen nudum) (not in Kansas). List the following species from Kansas: Carphophiops vermis (= Carphophis vermis); Ophibolus calligaster (= Lampropeltis calligaster); Ophibolus doliatus and Ophibolus doliatus annulatus (= Lampropeltis gentilis/triangulum); Tropidonotus sipedon erythrogaster (= Nerodia erythrogaster); Opheosaurus ventralis (= Ophisaurus attenuatus); Coluber emoryi (= Pantherophis emoryi); Coluber vulpinus (= Pantherophis ramspotti); Pituophis sayi (= Pituophis catenifer); and Tropidoclonion lineatum
1876 Jordan, David Starr. Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States: Including the District East of the Mississippi River, and North of North Carolina and Tennessee, Exclusive of Marine Species. Jansen, McClurg, and Company, Chicago, Illinois.. 342pp.
1877 Mozley, Annie E. List of Kansas snakes in the museum of the Kansas State University. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 6():34-35
First attempt to compile a complete list of snakes reported from Kansas. Most specimens were from Douglas and Wallace counties.
Contains obvious identification/locality errors Thamnophis marcianus (Douglas County) and Heterodon simus (Wallace County).
Neroida holbrookii = Nerodia rhombifer.
Use of the name 'Kansas State University' actually refers to The University of Kansas where Annie E. (Mozley)Boddington received her BS @ KU in 1878 (see also Gloyd 1928).
1878 Jordan, David S. Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States: Including the District East of the Mississippi River, and North of North Carolina and Tennessee, Exclusive of Marine Species. Second Edition, Revised, and Enlarged. Jansen, McClurg & Company, Chicago. pp.
1880 Cragin, Francis W. A preliminary catalogue of Kansas reptiles and batrachians Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 7():112-123
Also listed the Scarlet Snake (Cemophora coccinea) [=Ophibolus doliatus var. coccineus] and Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) [=Spelerpes ruber] from Kansas.
1882 Yarrow, Henry C. Check list of North American Reptilia and Batrachia with catalogue of specimens in U. S. National Museum. Bulletin of the United States National Museum (24):1-249
A summary of all herpetological species known at the time, with reference to specimens in the United States National Museum. Including one three Acris blanchardi from Fort Riley; Agkistrodon contortrix from Fort Riley; three Ambystoma mavortium from "Kansas" and another from Fort Riley; one Anaxyrus woodhousii from "Kansas"; one Anaxyrus cognatus from "Kansas" and another from Fort Riley; one Carphophis vermis from Fort Scott; three Coluber constrictor from "Kansas" and two from Fort Riley; one Crotalus horridus from 1858; one Diadophis punctatus from Hyatt [Hyette sic], Kansas (Anderson County); one Graptemys pseudogeographica from the Republican River in Kansas;   two Heterodon nasicus from Fort Riley; one Lampropeltis calligaster from Neosho Falls; one Lampropeltis holbrooki from Fort Riley, one from "Natchez", Kansas, and one other from Shawnee Mission, Kansas;one Lampropeltis gentilis from Fort Riley and one other from the Republican River, Kansas; one Pantherophis obsoletus from Fort Riley;fourteen Phrynosoma douglassi from "Kansas" and four from Fort Riley; three Phrynosoma cornutum from Fort Riley (Riley County);  three Pituophis catenifer from "Platte Valley", Kansas [likely from eastern Colorado prior to 1861] and two specimens from Fort Riley; one Plestiodon septentrionalis from Neosho Falls (Woodson County); one Plestiodon obsoletus from Fort Riley; one Thamnophis sirtalis from "Kansas"; one Nerodia sipedon from Fort Riley and another from Neosho Falls; one Scincella lateralis from Fort Scott (Bourbon County); one Thamnophis proximus from Fort Riley; four Sceloporus consobrinus from Fort Riley; one Tantilla nigriceps from Fort Riley; four Thamnophis sirtalis from "Kansas" and two from Little Blue River, Kansas; 
1883 Davis, N. S. Jr. and Frank L. Rice. Descriptive catalogue of North American batrachia and reptilia, found east of Mississippi River. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 1(5):71
1889 Cope, Edward D. On the snakes of Florida. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 11():381-394
References a specimen of Ophibolus doliatus syspilus (= Lampropeltis gentilis) from Fort Harker (Ellsworth County) in Cope's private collection.
1891 Stejneger, Leonhard. Notes on some North American snakes. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 14(876):501-505
Comments on discrepancies in Cope (1975) regarding the validity of  Lampropeltis annulata in Kansas. States that recently described Tropidoclonion lineatum iowa does not deviate from specimens from Kansas including the type specimen.
1900 Cope, Edward D. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Pages 153-1270 in Report of the U. S. National Museum for the Year Ending June 30, 1898 , Washington, D. C. pp.
1900 Cope, Edward D. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Pages 153-1270 in Report of the U. S. National Museum for the Year Ending June 30, 1898 , Washington, D. C. pp.
1903 Branson, Edwin B. Snakes of Kansas Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 41pp.
Describes all snake species reported from Kansas, considering doubtful those species that the author has not encountered himself. This list contains twenty-nine valid species. Collections examined included State University (KU), State House, Washburn College (WU), Ottawa University, State Normal School (ESU), State Agricultural College (KSU), and several high schools in Kansas. Examined the material available to Mozley (1878) and determined that of the thirty-three species listed, only twenty-three species were valid currently. And that Cragin's (1880) list of thirty-two species included eight specimens on the authority of Mozley that this author could not verify in any collection.
1904 Branson, Edwin B. Snakes of Kansas. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 2(13):353-430
1907 Ditmars, Raymond L. Reptiles of North America. Doubleday and Company, New York. pp.
1911 Hurter, Julius. Herpetology of Missouri. Transactions of the Academy of Science St. Louis 20(5):59-274
1913 Ellis, Max M. and Junius Henderson. The amphibia and reptilia of Colorado. Part 1. University of Colorado Studies 10(1):39-129
1920 Blanchard, Frank N. A synopsis of the king snakes: Genus Lampropeltis Fitzinger. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (87):1-7
1921 Blanchard, Frank N. A revision of the king snakes: Genus Lampropeltis.. Bulletin of the United States National Museum (114):1-260
1925 Linsdale, Jean M. Land Vertebrates of a Limited Area in Eastern Kansas. Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 312pp.
1927 Burt, Charles E. An annotated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Riley County, Kansas. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (189):12
Accounts on forty species known from the vicinity of Manhattan, Riley County, Kansas. There have been several scientific names changes since publication, which is understandable... however, some usages cannot be explained by subsequent taxonomic reappraisals(e.g.  Gastrophryne carolinensis for Gastrophryne olivacea). The writer lists Eumeces (=Plestiodon) obsoletus and E. guttulatus yet correctly reasoning that the latter is the young of the former. Within the account of Tantilla gracilis (a common form) the writer mentions that T. nigriceps was reported from Riley County by Branson (1904) but that the specimens at Kansas State were absent at the time of publication. The Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) was first reported from Riley County by Branson (1904) and is reported by the writer based on a specimen in the museum at Kansas State University by Professor E. A. Popenoe. The Prairie Rattlesnake is not currently native to Riley County, and closest reliable localities are 150 to the west.
1927 Linsdale, Jean M. Amphibians and reptiles of Doniphan County, Kansas. Copeia 1927(164):75-81
1928 Ortenburger, Arthur I. The whip snakes and racers: Genera Masticophis and Coluber. Memiors of the University of Michigan Museum (1):1-247
1929 Taylor, Edward H. A revised checklist of the snakes of Kansas. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 19(5):53-62
1929 Taylor, Edward H. List of reptiles and batrachians of Morton County, Kansas, reporting species new to the state fauna. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 19(6):63-65
Annotated listing of 25 species discovered in southwest Morton County just prior to the Dust Bowl that wreaked havoc on the region and the subsequent creation of the Cimarron National Grassland. Of special note are Heterodon platirhinos, Thamnophis marcianus, and Anaxyrus debilis (all of which have not been found in the area since).
1929 Burt, Charles E. and May Danheim Burt. Field notes and locality records on a collection of amphibians and reptiles, chiefly from the western half of the United States. II. Reptiles. Journal of the Washington Academy of Science 19(20):448-460
1932 Gloyd, Howard K. The herpetological fauna of the Pigeon Lake Region, Miami County, Kansas. Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 15():389-408
First record of Notophthalmus viridescens from Kansas. Second record (after the type locality) of Pseudacris crucifer from Kansas.
1933 Stejneger, Leonhard and Thomas Barbour. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 3rd Edition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. pp.
Reference to Kansas is the listed range of several species.
1933 Burt, Charles E. Some distributional and ecological records of Kansas reptiles. Transactions of the Academy of Science St. Louis 26():186-208
1934 Brennan, Lawrence A. A check list of the amphibians and reptiles of Ellis County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():189-191
1934 Burt, Charles E. and W. L. Hoyle. Additional records of the reptiles of the central prairie region of the United States. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():193-216
1935 Brennan, Lawrence A. Notes on the Distribution of Amphibia and Reptilia of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 114pp.
1935 Burt, Charles E. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16(3):311-366
1936 Hurd, Myron Alec. The reptiles of Cherokee County, Kansas. Thesis. Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, Kansas. 103pp.
Under the supervision of thesis adviser Harry H. Hall. Report on 38 species (8 turtles, 7 lizards, and 23 snakes)... most unsubstantiated. Interesting inclusion are Crotalus horridus, Crotalus viridis, Kinosternon subrubrum, Opheodrys vernalis, and Phrynosoma cornutum.
1936 Brumwell, Malcolm J. Distributional records of the reptilia and amphibians of Kansas. Privately printed, . 22pp.
County dot maps of the Kansas herpetofauna. This work has been attributed to have been written around 1933, but that may be in error. 
Hypsiglena jani was not known from Kansas until Claude W. Hibbard collected three specimens on the Stevenson Ranch in north-central Clark County (above Clark State Lake) during June 1936 (Hibbard, 1937). Brumwell plotted this locality, which leads me to believe that the 1936 would have been the earliest date this manuscript could have been written.
1937 Brennan, Lawrence A. A study of the habitat of reptiles and amphibians of Ellis County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 40():341-347
1939 Ditmars, Raymond L. A Field Book of North American Snakes. Doubleday, Doran and Company, New York. pp.
1940 Carpenter, J. R. The grassland biome. Ecological Monographs 10():617-684
1941 Schmidt, Karl Peterson and D. D. Davis. Field Book of Snakes of the United States and Canada. C.P. Putnam and Sons, New York. 365pp.
1944 Marr, John C. Notes on amphibians and reptiles from the central United States. American Midland Naturalist 32(2):478-490
1945 Bugbee, R. E. A note on the mortality of snakes on highways in western Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 47():373-374
1947 Hall, Henry H. and Hobart M. Smith. Selected records of reptiles and amphibians from southeastern Kansas Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 49(4):447-454
Report on certain Kansas specimens housed in the collection at what is now Pittsburg State University. Included are several species of dubious status today, including Cryptobranchus alleganiensis from the Neosho and Spring rivers (the only specimens from those significant drainages ever documented), Ambystoma maculatum from just north of Pittsburg, Crawford County, Heterodon nasicus from Crawford County, Opheodrys vernalis from Crawford County, Sonora episcopa from Crawford County, Agkistrodon piscivorus from Cherokee County, Crotalus atrox from Crawford County, and Crotalus viridis from Crawford County. They report several significant range extensions including Kinosternon flavescens from Turkey Creek in southeast Cherokee County, Graptemys geographica from just north of Pittsburg, Crotaphytus collaris from near Columbus, Cherokee County, Sceloporus consobrinus from just north of Pittsburg, Phrynosoma cornutum from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Heterodon platirhinos from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Haldea striatula from Crawford County, Sistrurus tergeminus from Crawford County, and a 402 lb Macrochelys temminckii in Cherokee County from just east of Chetopa (Labette County). They allude to the potential for Anaxyrus fowleri to occur in southeast Kansas and for native populations of Crotalus atrox in south central Kansas (in part from the disclosure that John R. Breukelman [then of ESU] had obtained three specimens in Woods County Oklahoma, 3/4 of a mile south of the Kansas line). None of the specimens the paper was based on, exist today.
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
The first modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table and text say 97 on p. 10) and 13 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies.
1951 Fitch, Henry S. A simplified type of funnel trap for reptiles. Herpetologica 7():77-80
1951 Brumwell, Malcolm J. An ecological survey of the Fort Leavenworth Military Reservation American Midland Naturalist 45(1):187-231
Published posthumously. Lieutenant Brumwell died December 14, 1941, as a result of injuries incurred during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. This paper is a condensed version of his thesis for the Master's degree.
1951 Breukelman, John and Robert F. Clarke. A revised list of amphibia and reptiles of Chase and Lyon Counties, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 54():542-545
1953 Schmidt, Karl P. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 280pp.
Schmidt's first edition of his standardized checklist to North American amphibians and reptiles. Includes several specific references to Kansas in the range descriptions.
1954 Cook, Fannye A. Snakes of Mississippi. Survey Bulletin of the Mississippi Game and Fish Commission, Jackson. pp.
1956 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. Second edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (9):1-356
Hobart M. Smith's updated second edition of his first (1950) modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table says 97 on p. 10; text says 98 on p. 10) and 11 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies. The second edition has updated taxonomy, added Plestiodon laticeps, and removed Eurycea tynerensis.
1956 Fitch, Henry S. Temperature responses in free-living amphibans and reptiles of Northeastern Kansas. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History 8(7):417-476
1956 Loomis, Richard B. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 37():1195-1443
Examined 2,628 Kansas reptiles of 48 species consisting of 27 turtles of 4 species, 1,736 lizards of 12 species and 892 snakes of 32 species for chiggers. Eleven species of chiggers were recovered from reptiles.
For amphibians, 1188 individuals of 21 species were examined. Five species of chigger mite were recovered from amphibians.
1957 Tanner, Wilmer W. and Richard B. Loomis. A taxonomic and distributional study of the western subspecies of the milk snake, Lampropeltis doliata . Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 60(1):12-42
1958 Conant, Roger. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern North America. Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston. pp.
1958 Clarke, Robert F. An ecological study of the reptiles and amphibians in Osage County, Kansas. Emporia State Research Studies,Kansas State Teachers College 7(1):1-52
1958 Fitch, Henry S. Home ranges, territories, and seasonal movements of vertebrates of the Natural History Reservation. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History 11(3):63-326
1958 Clarke, Robert F., John Breukelman, and T. F. Andrews. An annotated check list of the vertebrates of Lyon County, Kansas Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 62(2):165-195
1959 Collins, H. H. Complete Field Guide to American Wildlife. Harper and Brothers, New York. pp.
1961 Cochran, Doris M. Type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. Bulletin of the United States National Museum (220):1-289
1962 Gish, Charles D. The Herpetofauna of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 34pp.
1965 Anderson, Paul. The Reptiles of Missouri. University of Missouri Press, Columbia. pp.
1967 Choate, Jerry R. Wildlife in the Wakarusa Watershed of Northeastern Kansas. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 46pp.
1967 Gier, Herschel T. Vertebrates of the Flint Hills. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 70(1):51-59
1970 Cochran, Doris M. and Colman J. Goin. The New Field Book of Reptiles and Amphibians. Putnam's Sons, New York. pp.
1970 Fitch, Henry S. and Robert R. Fleet. Natural history of the milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum) in northeastern Kansas. Herpetologica 26(4):387-396
1971 Cross, Frank B. Environmental Inventory and Assessment of the Grand (Neosho) River Basin, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas. Kansas Biological Survey and Institute of Social Environmental Studies, Lawrence. pp.
1971 Williams, Kenneth L. Systematics of the colubrid snake Lampropeltis triangulum Lacepede. Dissertation. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. 458pp.
1971 Hawthorn, K. Kingsnakes and Milk Snakes: Identification and care in captivity. Bulletin of the New York Herpetological Society 8(1-2):13-21
1973 Blaney, Richard M.. Lampropeltis. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (150):1-2
1973 McLeran, V. Friendly constrictors. Kansas Fish and Game (30(2)):8-11
Popular article: states that "Kansas is host to six constrictor reptiles" (Lampropeltis calligaster, L. holbrookia, L. gentilis/triangulum, Pantherophis emoryi, Pantherophis obsoletus, and Pituophis catenifer)... omitting Arizona elegans and Rhinocheilus lecontei. The image of the 'milk snake' is actually an Eastern Kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula) and the bullsnake in the Red-tailed Hawk nest (apparently a natural predation event recorded by the author) is a Prairie Kingsnake (Lampropeltis calligaster).
1973 Eddy, T. and K. Babcock. A bit of Kansas history. Kansas School Naturalist 20(1):3-15
1974 Henderson, Robert W. Resource partitioning among snakes of the University of Kansas Natural History Reservation: A preliminary analysis. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology (1):1-11
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
Joseph T. Collins first Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Smith 1956)>
1974 Perry, Janice. KHS members take trip to southwest Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (3):2-3
Account of a search for Crotalus atrox and other species discovered in Comanche County.
1974 Platt, Dwight R., Joseph T. Collins, and Ray E. Ashton, Jr. Rare, endangered and extirpated species in Kansas. II. Amphibians and reptiles. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 76(3):185-192
The initial initiative to determine population and conservation status of Kansas' amphibians and reptiles based on our understanding at the time. A lot has changed regarding our increased knowledge on all the listed species.
1974 Karns, Daryl, Ray E. Ashton, Jr., and Thomas Swearingen. Illustrated Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas: An Identification Manual. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History Public Education Series(2):viii + 18
1975 Conant, Roger. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston. pp.
1976 Rundquist, Eric M. Field checklist (of) amphibians and reptiles of Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Caldwell, Janalee P. and Gregory. Glass. Vertebrates of the Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Pages 62-76 in Preliminary inventory of the biota of Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Report No. 5. State Biological Survey of Kansas, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Caldwell, Janalee P. and Gregory. Glass. Vertebrates of the Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Pages 62-76 in Preliminary inventory of the biota of Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Report No. 5. State Biological Survey of Kansas, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Rickart, Eric A. A new horned lizard (Phrynosoma adinognathus) from the early Pleistocene of Meade County, Kansas, with comments on the herpetofauna of the Borchers locality. Herpetologica 32(1):64-67
Contains the original description of Phrynosoma adinognathus.
1977 Knight, James L. and Joseph T. Collins. The amphibians and reptiles of Cheyenne County, Kansas, Report Number 15. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 19pp.
1978 Li, Amy. Comparative reproduction studies of two colubrid snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, Lampropeltis triangulum syspila): Advanced Biology Report. Lawrence High School, Lawrence, Kansas. 15pp.
1978 Curl, Richard L. Final Environmental Statement: Milford Lake Kansas operation and maintenance. US Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District. 158pp.
Notable mentions: Spotted Salamander, Smooth Green Snake
1978 Williams, Kenneth L. Systematics and natural history of the American milk snake, Lampropeltis traingulum. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology (2):1-258
1978 Li, Amy. Comparative reproduction studies of two colubrid snakes. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (24):5-8
1978 Kamb, A. Food consumption in the Red Milk Snake Lampropeltis triangulum syspila. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (25):5-13
1978 Perry, Janice. KHS successful at Miami County State Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (27):5
1978 Collins, Joseph T. and Janalee P. Caldwell. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1977. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 6():70-88
1979 Knight, James L. Herps observed or collected during the first three months of 1979. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (30):6-7
Authorship listed as Anonymous in Collins et al. (2010).
1979 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1978. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 8():56-66
1980 Fitch, Henry S. Reproductive strategies of reptiles. Pages 25-31 in Reproductive Biology and Diseases of Captive Reptiles. Contributions to Herpetology, Number 1. Meseraull Printing, Inc, Lawrence, Kansas. pp.
1980 Clarke, Robert F. Herptiles and fishes of the western Arkansas River in Kansas. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 55pp.
A summary of known information on the amphibian, reptile, and fish faunas of the Arkansas River above Great Bend. The report details associated field activities for procuring fish, however no new surveys for amphibians and reptiles were undertaken. Information on herps from Finney County was provided by Michael Rush (FHSU) and thus made available before the publication of his thesis (Rush, 1981). The western Arkansas River drainage had experienced little attention by herpetologists before this study, and the species accounts reflect that paucity of data. Additionally, the report omits several older records (e.g. for Anaxyrus debilisThamnophis cyrtopsis, and Lampropeltis calligaster) from the westernmost reaches of the Arkansas River drainage in Kansas.
1980 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1979. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 9():1-11
1980 Clarke, Robert F. Snakes in Kansas. Kansas School Naturalist 26(3):1-15
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Report to the Kansas Fish and Game Commission on the status of three amphibians in southeastern Kansas. Kansas Fish and Game Commission, Pratt. 57pp.
1982 Fitch, Henry S. Resources of a snake community in prairie-woodland habitat of northeastern Kansas. Pages 83-97 in Herpetological communities: A symposium of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles and the Herpetologists League, August 1977.  Wildlife Research Reports 12. 239 pp. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D. C. pp.
1982 Fitch, Henry S. Resources of a snake community in prairie-woodland habitat of northeastern Kansas. Pages 83-97 in Herpetological communities: A symposium of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles and the Herpetologists League, August 1977.  Wildlife Research Reports 12. 239 pp. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D. C. pp.
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
Joseph T. Collins second Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1974)>
1982 Capron, Marty B., Kelly J. Irwin, and John Tollefson. KHS 1982 field trip for the fall. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (50):5
1982 Cox, T. M. Milk Snakes and related species in the U. S. J. North. Ohio Association Herpetologists 8():43-49
1983 Ballinger, Royce E. and John D. Lynch. How to Know the Amphibians and Reptiles. Wm. C. Brown,, Dubuque, Iowa. pp.
1983 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1982 . Technical Publication of the State Biological Survey of Kansas 13():9-21
1984 Holman, J. Alan. Herpetofaunas of the Duck Creek and Williams Local Faunas (Pleistocene: Illinoian) of Kansas. Pages 20-38 in Contributions in Quaternary Vertebrate Paleontology: A Volume in Memorial to John E. Guilday. Special Publication Number 8. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp.
1984 Brown, Kenneth L. Pomona: A plains village variant in eastern Kansas and western Missouri. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 519pp.
1984 Secor, Stephen M. and Charles C. Carpenter. Distribution maps of Oklahoma reptiles. Oklahoma Herpetological Society Special Publication (3):1-57
1984 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1983. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (56):15-26
Invalidated the specimens of Thamnophis sirtalis from Hamilton County (reidentified as T. cyrtopsis; KU 2088) and Wallace County mapped in Collins, 1982.
1984 Schwarting, Nancy. KHS field trip, May 1984. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (57):3-4
1984 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1984. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (58):14-20
1985 Collins, Joseph T. (Editor) Natural Kansas. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. pp.
1985 Miller, Larry L. KHS 1985 field trip to Kirwin Reservoir. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (61):11-12
1985 Fitch, Henry S. Variation in clutch and litter size in New World reptiles. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (76):1-76
1985 Lynch, John D. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Science 13():33-57
1986 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1985. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (63):4
1986 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1986. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (66):9-16
1987 Coleman, Keith. Annual KHS Field Trip held at Atchison State Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (68):5-6
1988 Williams, Kenneth L. Systematics and Natural History of the American Milk Snake, Lampropeltis triangulum. 2nd Revised Edition Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee. 176pp.
1988 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1987. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (71):13-19
1989 Collins, Joseph T. First Kansas herp counts held in 1989. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (77):11-
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Results of second Kansas herp count held during April-May 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):10-12
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Maximum size records for Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):13-17
1990 Joy, Jack. An additional note on Howard K. Gloyd. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 25(10):180
1991 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, Bob Gress, and Gerald Wiens. Kansas Wildlife. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. pp.
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1991 Boyd, R. Baker University wetlands. Pages 106-125 in Multidisciplinary Guidebook 4, Kansas Academy of Science, Lawrence. pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Reptiles and Amphibians of the Cimarron National Grasslands, Morton County, Kansas. U. S. Forest Service, Elkhart, Kansas. 60pp.
1991 Fitch, Henry S. Reptiles and amphibians of the Kansas ecological reserves. Pages 71-74 in Ecology and Hydrology of Kansas Ecological Reserves and the Baker Wetlands. Multidisciplinary Guidebook 4. Kansas Academy of Science, Lawrence, Kansas. pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (83):7-13
1991 Collins, Joseph T. Results of third Kansas herp count held during April-May 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (85):9-13
1992 Ford, Kenneth M. III. Herpetofauna of the Albert Ahrens Local Fauna (Pleistocene: Irvingtonian), Nebraska. Thesis. Michigan State University, Lansing, Michigan. 44pp.
1992 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (87):12-17
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Observations on Kansas amphibians and reptiles Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (88):13-15
1992 Ball, Robert L. High plains serpents: Results of a long-term study in Texas County, Oklahoma and Morton County, Kansas Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (88):16-17
1992 Collins, Joseph T. Results of the fourth Kansas herp count held during April-May 1992. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (89):10-
1992 Edds, David R. Observations of the 1992 Sharon Springs rattlesnake roundup. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (90):11
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS annual field trip to Sheridan County State Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (90):3-4
1992 Fitch, Henry S. Methods of sampling snake populations and their relative success. Herpetological Review 23():17-19
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
Joseph T. Collins third Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1982)>
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the fifth Kansas herp count held during April-June 1993 . Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (94):7-11
1993 Fitch, Henry S. Relative abundance of snakes in Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 96(3/4):213-224
1994 Busby, William H., Jeffery R. Parmelee, C. M. Dwyer, Errol D. Hooper, and Kelly J. Irwin. A survey of the herpetofauna on the Fort Riley Military Reservation, Kansas. Report 58. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 79pp.
1994 Fitzgerald, Eve C. and Charles Nilon. Classification of habitats for endangered and threatened species in Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 98pp.
1994 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1993. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):15-19
1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):5-14
See, 1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Additions and corrections [to the results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994]. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):4.
1994 Williams, Kenneth L. Lampropeltis triangulum. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (594):1-10
1994 Dloogatch , Michael A. (Editor) Herpetology 1994 Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 29(12):282-283
Note on the Fitch (1993) paper in the Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Sciences (96(3-4): 213-224) on the abundance.
1995 Holman, J. Alan. Pleistocene Amphibians and Reptiles. Oxford University Press, New York. 243pp.
1995 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the seventh annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (101):11-17
1995 Rundquist, Eric M. Additional KHS herp counts for 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (102):11-
1996 Busby, William H., Joseph T. Collins, and Jeffery R. Parmelee. The Reptiles and Amphibians of Fort Riley and Vicinity. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. pp.
1996 Miller, Larry L. Results of the KHS 1995 fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (103):3
1996 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eighth annual KHS herp counts Held 1 April-31 May 1996. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (104):6-17
1996 Miller, Larry L. Many amphibian and reptile species identified during KHS 1996 fall field trip to Wabaunsee County. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (106):2-3
1996 Rakestraw, J. Spring herp counts: A Kansas tradition. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (March-April):75-80
1996 Busby, William H. and Jeffery R. Parmelee. Historical changes in a herpetofaunal assemblage in the Flint Hills of Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 135():81-91
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the ninth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1997. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (108):12-17
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Addendum to 1997 KHS herp counts. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (109):14-15
1997 Collins, Joseph T. A report on the KHS fall field trip to the Marais des Cygnes wildlife refuges. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (110):2-3
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1998 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians & Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 131pp.
1998 Gamble, Jerre. Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hartford, Kansas. 91pp.
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the tenth annual KHS herp counts for 1998, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (112):11-18
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. KDWP herp sting so far nets nine on Kansas and Federal charges. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (112):5-6
1998 Collins, Joseph T. Results of the KHS silver anniversary fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (114):6-
1999 Fitch, Henry S. A Kansas Snake Community: Composition and Changes over 50 Years. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. pp.
1999 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas Herpetological Society herp counts: A 10 year summary and evaluation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (115):42962
2000 Bartlett, Richard D. and Alan Tennant. Snakes of North America: Western Region. . Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. pp.
2000 Fitch, Henry S. Population structure and biomass of some common snakes in central North America. Scientific Papers of the Natural History Museum University of Kansas (17):1-7
2000 Taggart, Travis W. KHS spring field trip sets record for attendance. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (120):5-5
2000 Taggart, Travis W. Biogeographic analysis of the reptiles (Squamata) in Ellis County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (121):7-16
2000 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eleventh and twelfth annual KHS herpetofaunal counts for 1999-2000, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (122):11-16
2000 Cavitt, John F. Tallgrass Prairie snake assemblage. Food habits. Herpetological Review 31(1):47-48
2000 Cavitt, John F. Fire and a tallgrass prairie community: effects on relative abundance and seasonal activity. Journal of Herpetology 34(1):12-20
2001 Taggart, Travis W. The KHS 2001 spring field trip: A rainy rendezvous. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (124):12-14
2001 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the thirteenth annual KHS herp counts for 2001, held 1 April-30 June. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):13-16
2001 Armstrong, Michael P., David Frymire, and Edmund J. Zimmerer. Analysis of sympatric populations of Lampropeltis triangulum syspila and Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides, in western Kentucky and adjacent Tennessee with relation to the taxonomic status of the Scarlet Kingsnake. Journal of Herpetology 35(4):688-693
2002 Kingsbury, Bruce and Joanna Gibson. Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Midwest. Publication of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, Address not given. 152pp.
2002 Fogell, Daniel D. Occurrence and relative abundance of amphibians and reptiles at Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Homestead National Monument of America, and Pipestone National Monument within the Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network. Interim Report. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.. 6pp.
2002 Miller, Larry L. Shawnee County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):15
2002 Dloogatch , Michael A. (Editor) Herpetology 2002 Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 37(1):13-14
Note on a paper by Armstrong et al. (2001. Journal of Herpetology 35(4): 688-693) on milksnakes.
2003 Ernst, Carl H. and E. M. Ernst. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C. pp.
2003 Smith, Brian E. and Nathan T. Stephens. Conservation assessment of the Pale Milk Snake in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Custer, South Dakota. 17pp.
2003 Freeman, Craig C. A natural areas inventory of the Ft. Leavenworth Military Reservation, Leavenworth County, Kansas. II. Open-file Report No. 117. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence, Kansas. 199pp.
2003 Fogell, Daniel D. A herpetofaunal inventory of Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Homestead National Monument of America, and Pipestone National Monument within the Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.. 59pp.
This is the version the author submitted to the NPS. Their final publication was modified.
2003 Fogell, Daniel D. A herpetofaunal inventory of Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Homestead National Monument of America, and Pipestone National Monument within the Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.. 59pp.
This is the version the author submitted to the NPS. Their final publication was modified.
2003 Suleiman, G. Fort Riley herpetofaunal count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):11-12
2003 Fitch, Henry S. Reproduction in snakes of the Fitch Natural History Reservation in northeastern Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):21-24
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2003 KHS spring field trip to Wilson County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):2-5
2003 Whitney, Chad and Brandon DeCavele. The Red Milk Snake in northeast Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):9-10
2003 Miller, Larry L. and Suzanne L. Miller. Wakarusa herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):10
2003 Volkmann, Al. Cowley County herp count 1. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):7
2003 Suleiman, Gibran. Fort Riley herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):9
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2003 fall field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (8):14-15
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Geographic distribution: Lampropeltis triangulum. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (8):19
2003 Fitch, Henry S., Scott Sharp, and Kylee Sharp. Snakes of the University of Kansas biotic succession area. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (8):20-21
2003 Setser, Kirk and John F. Cavitt. Effects of burning on snakes in Kansas, USA, tallgrass prairie. Natural Areas Journal 23(4):315-319
2004 Schmidt, Curtis J. Natural history and status of the exploited Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in western Kansas and a herpetofaunal inventory of the Smoky Valley Ranch, Logan County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. pp.
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2004 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (9):2
2004 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians, turtles, and reptiles in Kansas for 2003. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (9):8-11
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2004 KHS spring field trip to Logan County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (10):2-7
2004 Volkmann, Al. Cowley County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):10
2004 Washburne, M. Ellsworth County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):10
2004 Collins, Joseph T. Marais des Cygnes herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):11
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2004 fall feld trip . Journal of Kansas Herpetology (12):15-16
2004 Miller, Larry L. Life history. Lampropeltis triangulum. Reproduction. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (12):17
2005 Busby, William H., Joseph T. Collins, and G. Suleiman. The Snakes, Lizards, Turtles, and Amphibians of Fort Riley and Vicinity. 2nd (revised) ed. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. pp.
2005 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2005 fall field trip [to Crawford County]. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (16):19-21
2006 Bartlett, Richard D. and Patricia P. Bartlett. Guide and Reference to the Snakes of Eastern and Central North America (North of Mexico). University Press of Florida, Gainesville. pp.
2006 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. A Pocket Guide to Kansas Snakes. 1st ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, Kansas. pp.
2006 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. A Pocket Guide to Kansas Snakes. 1st ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, Kansas. pp.
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS spring field trip to Kiowa County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (18):2-5
2006 Wilgers, Dustin J. and Eva A. Horne. Effects of different burn regimes on tallgrass prairie herpetofaunal species diversity and community composition in the Flint Hills, Kansas. Journal of Herpetology 40():73-84
2006 Wilgers, Dustin J., Eva A. Horne, Brett K. Sandercock, and Allan W. Volkmann. Effects of rangeland management on community dynamics of the herpetofauna of the tallgrass prairie. 62():378-388
2007 Taggart, Travis W., Joseph T. Collins, and Curtis J. Schmidt. Estimates of amphibian, reptile, and turtle mortality if Phostoxin is applied to 10,000 acres of prairie dog burrows in Logan County, Kansas. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. 5pp.
2007 Collins, Joseph T. A checklist of the amphibians, turtles, and reptiles of the Flint Hills Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Butler and Greenwood counties, Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (22):9-10
2008 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2008 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (25):2-3
2009 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. A Pocket Guide to Kansas Snakes. 2nd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, Kansas. pp.
2009 Maxell, Bryce A., Paul Hendricks, M. T. Gates, and S. Lenard. Montana amphibian and reptile status assessment, literature review, and conservation plan. Montana Natural Heritage Program, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 642pp.
2009 Murrow, Daniel G. KHS 2009 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (29):42769
2009 Fogell, Daniel D. Geographic distribution. Lampropeltis triangulum (Milk Snake). Journal of Kansas Herpetology (30):11
County record for Marion County, Kansas.
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
Joseph T. Collins fourth Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1993)>
2010 Murrow, Daniel G. Kansas Herpetological Society spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (33):2-3
2010 Hubbs, Brian and Chad Whitney. Geographic Distribution: Lampropeltis triangulanum (Milk Snake). Journal of Kansas Herpetology (33):6
County record, Ottawa County, Kansas.
2011 McMartin, David C. U. S. Army 2011 Fort Leavenworth Herpetofaunal Survey: 23 April - 09 May 2011. Privately printed, Leavenworth, Kansas. 33pp.
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 spring field trip to beheld in Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (37):5-7
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS Spring Field Trip to Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (38):2-4
2011 Taggart, Travis W. and Daniel Murrow. KHS to conduct summer field trip to western Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (38):5
2011 Nordgren, Matt and Chad Whitney. Geographic Distribution: Lampropeltis triangulum (Milk Snake) Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (38):7
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 Summer Field Trip to Scott State Park Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):2
2011 McMartin, D. Chris. Herp Count: Fort Leavenworth Herpetofaunal Survey for 2011. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):8-9
2011 Houck, Mike. Fort Riley Herpetofaunal Survey for 2011. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):9
2012 Rohweder, Megan R. Spatial conservation prioritization of Kansas for terrestrial vertebrates. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 151pp.
2012 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada: Second Edition, Revised and Updated. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 152pp.
2012 Hamilton, Bryan Tyler, Rachel Hart , and Jack W. Sites Jr. Feeding ecology of the Milksnake (Lampropeltis triangulum, Colubridae) in the western United States. Journal of Herpetology 46(4):515-522
2013 Sinclair, Tom. A four-day spring snake count across northern Kansas. Collinsorum 2(1/2):9
2013 Baldwin, Mary Kate. “Herps in Havensville” Herp Surveys. Collinsorum 2(3/4):10
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Spring Field Trip to Bourbon County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):3
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Fall Field Trip to Atchison County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):4
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Spring Field Trip to Schermerhorn Park, Cherokee County. Collinsorum 2(3/4):4
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Fall Field Trip to Butler County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):6
2013 Mardis, Dexter and Kevin Scott. 2013 Kansas Herpetofaunal Counts. Collinsorum 2(3/4):7
2013 Archer, John. What you missed at the April meeting. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 48(5):72-73
Summary of a keynote talk to the Chicago Herpetological Society by KHS member Dan Krull.
2014 McMartin, D. Chris. Fort Leavenworth Heretofaunal Survey for 2013. Collinsorum 3(1):10
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS Fall Field Trip to Woodson County. Collinsorum 3(2-4):12
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Recent scientific and standard English name changes effecting the Kansas herpetofauna. Collinsorum 3(2-4):9-10
2014 Ruane, Sara, Robert W. Bryson Jr., R. Alexander Pyron and Frank T. Burbrink. Coalescent species delimitation in Milksnakes (genus Lampropeltis) and impacts on phylogenetic comparative analyses. Systematic Biology 63(2):231-250
2015 Mike Houck. 2015 Fort Riley Herpetofaunal Count final report. Collinsorum 4(1):10-11
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Spring Field Trip to the Greenhorn Limestone of Russell County. Collinsorum 4(3):2
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Fall Field Trip Held In Washington County. Collinsorum 4(3):4
2015 Ruane, Sara, Omar Torres-Carvajal , and Frank T. Burbrink. Independent demographic responses to climate change among temperate and tropical Milksnakes (Colubridae: Genus Lampropeltis). PLOS One 10(6):1-17
2015 Hileman, Eric T., Joshua M. Kapfer, Timothy C. Muehlfeld, and John H. Giovanni. Recouping lost information when mark-recapture data are pooled: A case study of Milksnakes (Lampropeltis triangulum) in the upper midwestern United States. Journal of Herpetology 49(3):428-436
2015 Ruane, Sara. Using geometric morphometrics for integrative taxonomy: An examination of head shapes of milksnakes (genus Lampropeltis). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 2015():1-20
2016 Pittman, Galen L., Henry S. Fitch, and W. Dean Kettle. Vertebrate animals on the Fitch Natural History Reservation (1948-2002) Kansas Biological Survey Report Number 188, Lawrence. 48pp.
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
2016 Taylor, Michael. Geographic distribution: Lampropeltis gentilis: Norton County, Kansas. Collinsorum 5(4):16
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Spring 2016 KHS field trip to Clark County was a soggy success. Collinsorum 5(2-3):2-3
2017 Taggart, Travis W. and J. Daren Riedle. A Pocket Guide to Kansas Amphibians, Turtles and Lizards. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, Kansas. 69pp.
2017 Crother, Brian I. (editor) Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Eighth edition. Herpetological Circulars (43):102
2017 Mardis, Dexter R. Results from three Herpetofaunal tallies at Wichita State University’s Youngmeyer Ranch in Northwestern Elk County. Collinsorum 6(1):8-10
2017 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2017 KHS Spring Field Trip to Elk County, Kansas. Collinsorum 6(2-3):6-8
2017 Schmidt, Curtis J. Herp Count: Southeast Ellis County. Collinsorum 6(2-3):9
2017 Taggart, Travis W. Herp Count: Clark County State Lake. Collinsorum 6(2-3):9
2017 Taggart, Travis W. Herp Count: Northeast Barton County. Collinsorum 6(2-3):9
2018 Houck, Mike. Herp Count: Fort Riley Military Installation Collinsorum 7(1):17
2018 Burbrink, Frank T. and Marcelo Gehara. The biogeography of deep time phylogenetic reticulation. Systematic Biology 67(5):743–755
Kansas specimens used in this study (by county):
Lampropeltis calligaster: Atchison (USNM 197619), Brown (CM 36962, USNM 316532), Chautauqua (USNM 90606), Cowley (MCZ R-33428, MVZ 14025, USNM 88770, USNM 89931, USNM 90607), Doniphan (USNM 197620), Douglas (CM 55426, CM 58570, CM 58618, CM 58621, LACM 25392, MVZ 59335), Elk (SDNHM 21847), Franklin (CM 8654), Jefferson (CM 54766), Johnson (LACM 102464), Kearney (USNM 86914), Kingman (MCZ R-100454), Labette (USNM 85541), Leavenworth (CM 88841), Miami (CAS 62650), Morris (USNM 90604), No_Further_Locality_Data (USNM 307565), Pratt (USNM 44368), Shawnee (CM 58717),Wabaunsee (USNM 90605), Washington (USNM 82008), Woodson (USNM 5229);
Lampropeltis gentilis: Anderson (FHSM 9699), Crawford (LACM 38549), Douglas (LACM 38553, LACM 38555), Jefferson (LACM 38556, LACM 38557, LACM 38558, LACM 38559), Jewell (LACM 38544, LACM 38547), Leavenworth (FHSM 7991), Linn (FHSM 8310), Logan (FHSM 8504), Marshall (LACM 38560), McPherson (MVZ 45719), Miami (LACM 38563, LACM 38564, LACM 102468), Mitchell (LACM 38562), Ness (FHSM 8275, FHSM 8496), Pottawatomie (LACM 38550), Pottawatomie (LACM 38552), Rush (FHSM 7910), Russell (FHSM 8549, SRSU_6564), Russell (LACM 38561), Washington (FHSM 8838);
Lampropeltis holbrooki: Atchison (USNM 118466), Barber (FHSM 11267, FHSM 11295,FHSM 11304, FHSM 13220), Bourbon (FHSM 8477, FHSM 11209, FHSM 12905), Butler (FHSM 11456), Chase (USNM 307585), Comanche (FHSM 11300), Cowley (USNM 88618), Crawford (FHSM 12932), Douglas (CM 58562, FHSM 10796), Elk (FHSM 12755, FHSM 12771), Ellis (FHSM 11718, FHSM 13255), Ellsworth (FHSM 8446, FHSM 10862, FHSM 10960, ROM 4356), Franklin (FHSM 9755, FHSM 10692), Geary (USNM 5512), Gove (FHSM 9385), Harper (FHSM 8525), Jefferson (FHSM 12472, USNM 51553), Johnson (USNM 316), Kiowa (FHSM 9550), Leavenworth (FHSM 7930), Logan (FHSM 8095, FHSM 10944, FHSM 11100, FHSM 12618), Meade (USNM 310972), Rooks (USNM 86911), Rush (FHSM 7909), Russell (FHSM 8963, FHSM 11507, FHSM 12391, FHSM 10745), Shawnee (FHSM 10826), Wilson (FHSM 7669, FHSM 7681).
2019 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada. Third Edition. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 192pp.
2020 Daniel, Richard E. and Brian S. Edmond. Atlas of Missouri Amphibians and Reptiles for 2019. Privately printed, Columbia, Missouri. 86pp.
2020 Riedle, J. Daren. Revisiting Kansas Herpetological Society field trip and Herp Count data: Distributional patterns and trend data of Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Collinsorum 9(1):7-16
2020 Chambers, E. Anne and David M. Hillis. The multispecies coalescent over-splits species in the case of geographically widespread taxa. Systematic Biology 69(1):184–193
2020 Riedle, J. Daren and George R. Pisani. Revisiting old data to answer modern conservation questions: Population modeling of two species in kingsnakes, Lampropeltis sp. in Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 123(1-2):225-233
2021 Schmidt, Curtis J and Avery Schmidt. Herp Count: KHS-2020-4 Collinsorum 9(3):12
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Cherokee County: KHS-2020-03 Collinsorum 9(3):12
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Hamilton County: KHS-2020-10. Collinsorum 9(3):13
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Hodgeman County: KHS-2020-09. Collinsorum 9(3):13
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Morton County: KHS-2020-12. Collinsorum 9(3):13
2021 Schmidt, Curtis J. Herp Count: Russell County: KHS-2020-16. Collinsorum 9(3):14
2021 Schmidt, Curtis J. Herp Count: Russell County: KHS-2020-19. Collinsorum 9(3):14
2021 Taggart, Meg, Amelia Jaeger, Jesse J. Taggart, and Travis W. Taggart. Herp Count: Ellis County: KHS-2020-21. Collinsorum 9(3):14
2021 Taggart, Travis W. Herp Count: Russell County: KHS-2020-24. Collinsorum 9(3):14-15
2021 Taggart, Travis W., Dan Fogell, and Christopher Visser. Herp Count: Russell County: KHS-2020-25. Collinsorum 9(3):15
2021 Burbrink, Frank and Sara Ruane. Contemporary philosophy and methods for studying speciation and delimiting species. Ichthyology & Herpetology 109(3):874-894
2022 Burbrink, Frank T., Justin M. Bernstein, Arianna Kuhn, Marcelo Gehara, and Sara Ruane. Ecological divergence and the history of gene flow in the Nearctic milksnakes (Lampropeltis triangulum Complex) Systematic Biology 71(4):839–858
2023 Chambers, E. Anne, Thomas L. Marshall, and David M. Hillis. The importance of contact zones for distinguishing interspecific from intraspecific geographic variation. Systematic Biology 72():357–371
Kansas specimens utilized: CAS (178, 265A, 276,  277, 298, 299), FHSM-H (7627, 7910, 7931, 7991, 8275, FHSM-H 8310, FHSM-H 8333, 8348, 8351, 8447, 8496, 8549, 8838, 8870, 9397, 9636, 9637, 9650, 9699, 10526, 10600, 10601, 10616, 10797, 10985, 10986, 10995, 11004, 11011, 11072, 11086, 11271, 11333, 11338, 11400, 11512, 11518, 12268, 12299, 12492, 12501, 12655, 12786, 12850, 12867, 12873, 12878, 12902, 12910, 13122, 13514, 13668, 13946, 14000, 14488, 14976, 14992, 15236, 15710, 15711, 16397, 16447, 16634, 16635), JRO (197, 98), TF (8619, 8620, 621, 8625, 8631, 8633)
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Travis W. Taggart © 1999-2024 — w/ Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University