An adult Three-toed Box Turtle from Allen County, Kansas. © Meredith Dewey Friederich.
An adult Three-toed Box Turtle from Bourbon County. © Jason Burns.
An adult Three-toed Box Turtle from Allen County, Kansas. © Travis W. Taggart.
An adult Three-toed Box Turtle from Coffey County, KS. © Don Eccles.
Plastron of an Three-toed Box Turtle from Chisholm Creek Park, Sedgwick County, KS. Image © Ryan Philbrick.
An Three-toed Box Turtle from Chisholm Creek Park, Sedgwick County, KS. Image © Ryan Philbrick
An adult Three-toed Box Turtle from Johnson County, Kansas. © Jeff Witters.
The plastron of an adult Three-toed Box Turtle from Coffey County, KS. © Don Eccles.
REPTILIA (Reptiles) TESTUDINES (Turtles) EMYDIDAE (Box and Basking Turtles)

Three-toed Box Turtle
Terrapene triunguis (Agassiz 1857)
tĕr-ŭh-pē-nē — trī-ŭn-gŭ-ĭs


Conservation Status:

State: None

Federal: None
NatureServe State: S4 - Apparently Secure
NatureServe National: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Global: G5 - Secure
CITES: Appendix II
Diagnosis:
The terrestrial Three-toed Box Turtle is characterized by a short tail, a rigid upper shell, a lower shell with a distinct movable hinge, three claws on each hind foot, and a uniform, patternless lower shell. The upper shell is uniform tan or olive, sometimes with faint radiating light or dark lines. The lower shell is uniform tan or olive. The limbs and tail are brown, gray, or olive. The head is brown or olive, with small bright orange, red, or yellow spots. Sometimes the heads of males are completely red. Generally males have red eyes, whereas the eyes of females are yellowish brown. Males have longer tails and normally grow slightly larger than females.The head, throat, and forelegs of males are often have bright yellow, red, or orange spots. 
The plastron is a light yellow to tan with the sutures between scutes appearing a darker brown.
Adults normally 113- 150 mm (4 1/2-6 inches) in carapace length. The largest specimen from Kansas is a female (KU 218958) from Wyandotte County with a carapace length of 179 mm (7 inches), collected by Tom Sullivan and Stanley D. Roth on 1 June 1989. This is the maximum carapace length throughout the range (Powell et al., 2016).

Distribution:
Older records in Collins (1993) from Coffey County (KU 3017-20) are too imprecise to map, however, recent photographs turned in by Don Eccles lend support that this turtle may still exist there. Collins (1993) did not plot a 1912 record (USNM 55588) from Marion County and a 1925 record (KU 1918) from Stafford County. Both records are given to the county only and are therefore too imprecise to map. He also did not plot records for Riley and Pottawatomie counties. All of these records are in need of corroboration. 
Pleistocene fossil specimens are known from as far west as McPherson and Meade counties, indicating the possibility of local relict populations existing in suitable habitat along the major drainages into the Flint Hills. 
A specimen (KU 1918) from Stafford County listed in Collins (1974) was reidentified as Terrapene ornata prior to Collins (1982).
Oelrichhe (1953) described the holotype of Terrapene llanensis (p. 35; UMMP 26957; now synonomized under T. mexicana [triunguis] by Milstead 1967) from the posterior portion of a carapace and hindlobe of a plastron along with some postcranial specimens from the last interglacial Lone Tree Arroyo locality, Meade County, Kansas.
Individual Three-toed Box Turtles are commonly collected as pets and released outside of their range.
(,   Museum Voucher) (,   Observation) (,   Literature Record) (,   iNat Record), (  Fossil)
Open icons are questionable records; Click on a marker to view details.
Full range depicted by light shaded red area. Export Google Earth (.kml)
  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 428
    Records 
  • 259
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 169
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):
Allen (10); Bourbon (24); Butler (1); Chautauqua (10); Cherokee (172); Coffey (7); Cowley (4); Crawford (87); Douglas (4); Elk (4); Franklin (2); Greenwood (3); Johnson (3); Labette (16); Leavenworth (1); Linn (3); Marion (1); Meade (2); Miami (4); Montgomery (30); Neosho (12); Pottawatomie (1); Riley (1); Sedgwick (2); Shawnee (1); Sumner (1); Trego (1); Unknown (11); Wilson (5); Woodson (1); Wyandotte (4);

Fossil History:
Pleistocene fossil specimens are known from McPherson and Meade counties. Both of these records are outside of the currently known range of this species.
Reported from the WaKeeney Local Fauna of Trego County based on a left humerus by Holman (1976) (as Terrapene carolina). The WaKeeney Local Fauna site is considered Lower Pliocene: Middle or Late Clarendonian (13,600,000 to 10,300,000 years BP). These records are extralimital of the species current range.
Fossils from the Mount Scott Local Fauna of Meade County (Pleistocene: Illinoian) (Preston 1979, Holman 1987; Holman 1995) are assignable to this taxon.
Fossils from the Cragin Quarry Local Fauna of Meade County (Pleistocene: Sangamonian) (Hay 1917;  Etheridge 1958; Etheridge 1960, Tihen 1960; Tihen 1962; Brattstrom 1967; Preston 1979; Holman 1995) are assignable to this taxon.

Natural History:
The Three-toed Box Turtle is a terrestrial species of open woodlands, only occasionally found in pastures and around marshes. This turtle is active from April to October, spending the winter months buried two feet deep in the soil or well under leaf-covered rock overhangs to escape freezing temperatures. On warm winter days, this species may emerge from the ground, and some specimens are killed by rapidly falling temperatures which prevent them from returning underground or beneath shelter.
Optimal daily air temperatures for this turtle range from 84° to 100°F, although it probably becomes active at air temperatures as low as 65°F in the spring. Three-toed Box Turtles are active during daylight, usually in the morning or after rains. During extreme heat, they retire to shaded areas. On 12 May, Capron (1987) observed 78 of these turtles on or along a 122-mile stretch of highway between Oxford and Independence; about a third of them had been killed by vehicles.
This turtle breeds primarily during the spring months, but some mating may occur during summer and fall. Courtship involves several phases. First, the male approaches the female with his head held high, exposing and pushing his orange throat. She partially withdraws into her shell, and he circles her, nipping and nudging the edge of her shell sometimes for as much as an hour until she opens it. Then the male mounts her, hooking his hind toes into the space between the rear edges of her upper and lower shells. She responds initially by clamping her shells on his toes and holding him tightly. Evidently, he tickles the rear inside edge of her upper shell, causing her to open her lower shell. Subsequently, the male positions his hind feet near the rear edge of the female's lower shell. He extends his head forward, exposing his bright throat again, while his front feet touch her shell. Finally, he slips backward with the rear edge of his shell on the ground, positions his cloaca with hers, and copulation occurs.
Nesting takes place from May to July. The female digs her nest with her hind feet at twilight and lays her eggs at night. The nest is dug in loose sand or soil to a depth of 76.2-101.6 mm (3-4 inches) on an elevated patch of ground. Each female lays 2-8 elongate white eggs which generally hatch in three months. The hatchlings may spend the winter in the nest, emerging the following spring.
Three-toed Box Turtles do not have sex chromosomes, their gender is determined environmentally by incubation temperature at a critical point in their development. The pivot temperature for determining male vs. female is still unknown. In general, higher temperatures produce more females (Dodd 2001).
Legler (1960) reported a strong female-biased sex ratio (1:1.7 M:F) in the populations he studied in Kansas. Schwartz and Schwartz (1974) reported a slightly male-biased sex ratios (1:1.2 M:F) in the Three-toed Box Turtle population they studied in central Missouri. Schwartz et al. (1984) estimated the population density of Three-toed Box Turtles at their site in central Missouri to be 18.4 to 26.9 individuals per hectare.
The Three-toed Box Turtle is omnivorous, eating mushrooms, berries, fruit, grass, snails, crayfishes, earthworms, numerous insects, fishes, frogs, toads, salamanders, lizards, small snakes, and carrion. It has been suggested that Three-toed Box Turtles may be important seed dispersers (Dodd 2001).
Although primarily terrestrial, Three-toed Box Turtles can occasionally be found soaking in shallow pools. They have also been observed swimming across rivers and reservoirs.
Palmer et al. (2019) studied Three-toed Box Turtle populations in an urban park and a protected rural forest. Annual survival was high at each site 79 and 93% respectively. Winter kill was the greatest mortality factor.
Data from sampling studies (e.g. Legler 1960) show that Three-toed Box Turtle population structure is heavily skewed toward larger turtles. Young Three-toed Box Turtle are difficult to detect by the current methods in which they are sampled. This has resulted in researchers (e.g. Dodd 2001) reporting that Three-toed Box Turtles possess high hatchling/juvenile mortality. When in fact, this is not known, and as there are no data on the survivorship of Three-toed Box Turtles.

Occurrence Activity:
Number of Unique Obervations (=days): 118; Range: 02 Mar to 24 Nov
Remarks:
First definately reported from Kansas by Cragin (1880) based on a specimen observed by William Wheeler at Ottawa, Franklin County. The earliest existing specimen is KU 3014 was collected 7 miles north of Caney, Montgomery County, on 5 September 1915.  A specimen exists (USNM 55588) that was collected in Marion County (no additional details) during July-August 1912, however this species is not known to occur in Marion County.
Martin et al. (2013) found support for a western (including triunguis, mexicana, and yucatana) and an eastern group (carolina, baurii, and major, plus coahuila) within T. carolina. They recommended that the former be elevated to species status (T. mexicana, the oldest name) with three subspecies (including Kansas triunguis). However, Fritz and Havas (2014) argued against the recognition of mexicana (including triunguis) as a separate species because of demonstrated genetic introgression between triunguis and carolina. Nevertheless, because interspecific hybridization is known between many other closely related turtle species, Martin et al. (2014) reaffirmed and bolstered (2020, 2021) their support for recognizing mexicana (including triunguis from Kansas) and carolina as separate species.
The taxonomy vetted by the SSAR Standardized English Names list serves as the framework for the Kansas Herpetofaunal Atlas. However, the SSAR list is currently suspended, and the evidence brought forward by Martin et al. (2020, 2021) has has been used in other recent publications and so has been adopted here.
The Chelonian Research Foundation Turtle Taxonomy Working Group (Rhodin 2021) tentatively recognized the Three-toed Box Turtle as a separate species (Terrapene triunguis) (see taxonomic comments on p. 368; account p. 187), rather than a subspecies of either T. carolina or T. mexicana. I have followed their taxonomy.There are currently 138 'turtle races' conducted annually across Kansas (Alex Heeb pers. comm.). These are common community and organizational events typically conducted in conjunction with fairs and festivals. Three-toed and Ornate Box Turtles are the most commonly utilized species, however, it is not uncommon to have Spiny Softshells, Painted Turtles, Pond Sliders, Common Snapping Turtles, and even False and Ouachita Map Turtles. While typically well-meaning, the turtles are often held w/o access to food, water, or cover prior to (and during) these events. Events organizers and their participants to ensure that the turtles are not held captive for long periods leading up to the event, kept safe, sanitary, and appropriately fed while in captivity, and released at the point of capture soon after the event.
Three-toed Box Turtles are not listed as species with conservation concerns and have no special protections in Kansas. The Three-toed Box Turtle is listed by the two worldwide conservation ranking indicators; IUCN Red List (currently as Terrapene carolina) ('near threatened') and CITES (also currently as Terrapene carolina) (Appendix II; not necessarily now threatened with extinction but that may become so unless trade is closely controlled).
The conversion/loss of habitat has had the greatest effect on the Box Turtle populations in Kansas. Automobiles are a leading cause of Three-toed Box Turtle mortality when their home range overlaps with highways and many thousands of Three-toed Box Turtle are crushed on Kansas roads every year. Yet, populations in Kansas appear to be stable.
Box turtles are long-lived and adults have established home ranges. Tracking studies have shown that releasing box turtles into a new environment may increase their mortality (Hester et al. 2008).
There are wide-reported accounts that box turtles sequester toxins from the mushrooms they eat, that may then be transferred to organisms (including humans) that ingest box turtles. This myth stems from an anecdote published in Babcock (1919) when discussing the economic importance of box turtles in New England. He wrote "The flesh of this turtle is edible but is not generally used as food. During the coal miners' strike of 1902, in the vicinity of Scranton, Pennsylvania, many miners roamed over the hills and captured and ate turtles which made them sick. It is probable that these were Box Turtles, and the flesh may have been rendered temporarily poisonous to man from a diet of toadstools, of which the turtles are very found and which does not seem to poison them." It was never determined what species of turtles were eaten or that it was the turtles that made these people sick. Furthermore, it has never been shown that box turtles are capable of sequestering toxins in their body. We do know that Native Americans would consume box turtles.
Burt and Hoyle (1934) first commented on the number of individual Three-toed Box Turtles that are killed by vehicles on highways every year. Over a two year span (2004-2005) Taggart (2006; Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna) counted every Three-toed Box Turtle they encountered across the state, resulting in 41 observations. Of those, 13 were discovered alive on the road and 12 were dead on the road. Thirteen were found active off the road and one was under a cover object.
Beltz (1998) reported that two persons (one from Kansas and the other from Louisiana) were charged with the illegally buying and selling more than 1,000 box turtles. Dodd (2001) adds that the two were also convicted, however he does not cite a source. It is not stated where the turtles were collected from or what species they were.
Three-toed and Ornate Box Turtles may rarely hybridize where they are sympatric Cureton (2011). The normal color and pattern variation within each species is extensive, and extremes are not infrequently labeled as hybrids. Molecular studies are required to determine their exact identity.
Based on a captive specimen, Snider and Bowler (1992) reported a maximum longevity for this species of 26 years, five months, and six days.


Bibliography:
1849 Gray, John E. Description of a new species of box tortoise from Mexico. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 17(13 February):16-17
1857 Agassiz, Louis. Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America. Volume 1. Little, Brown & Company, Boston, Massachusets. 452pp.
Original description of Cistudo triunguis p. 445.
Discusses the regional faunas and includes Kansas in the "Western Fauna" pp. 450-451, with such characteristic species as Apalone mutica, Apalone spinifera, Chelydra serpentina, Chrysemys picta, Graptemys geographica, Graptemys pseudogeographica, Kinosternon subrubrumPseudemys concinna, Sternotherus odoratus, and Trachemys scripta, though none are listed as definitively occurring in Kansas.
1880 Cragin, Francis W. A preliminary catalogue of Kansas reptiles and batrachians Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 7():112-123
Also listed the Scarlet Snake (Cemophora coccinea) [=Ophibolus doliatus var. coccineus] and Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) [=Spelerpes ruber] from Kansas.
1895 Taylor, W. Edgar. The box tortoises of North America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 17(1019):573-588
1907 Ditmars, Raymond L. The Reptile Book; A comprehensive, Popularised Work on the Structure and Habits of the Turtles, Tortoises, Crocodilians, Lizards and Snakes which Inhabit the United States and Northern Mexico. Doubleday, Pae, and Company, New York. 472pp.
Several references to Kansas in the distribution of specific species accounts.
1916 Householder, Victor H. The Lizards and Turtles of Kansas with Notes on Their Distribution and Habitat. Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 100pp.
1919 Babcock, Harold L. The turtles of New England. Monographs on the Natural History of New England 8(3):325-431
1932 Gloyd, Howard K. The herpetological fauna of the Pigeon Lake Region, Miami County, Kansas. Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 15():389-408
First record of Notophthalmus viridescens from Kansas. Second record (after the type locality) of Pseudacris crucifer from Kansas.
1933 Stejneger, Leonhard and Thomas Barbour. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 3rd Edition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. pp.
Reference to Kansas is the listed range of several species.
1933 Burt, Charles E. Some distributional and ecological records of Kansas reptiles. Transactions of the Academy of Science St. Louis 26():186-208
1934 Burt, Charles E. and W. L. Hoyle. Additional records of the reptiles of the central prairie region of the United States. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():193-216
1936 Hurd, Myron Alec. The reptiles of Cherokee County, Kansas. Thesis. Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, Kansas. 103pp.
Under the supervision of thesis adviser Harry H. Hall. Report on 38 species (8 turtles, 7 lizards, and 23 snakes)... most unsubstantiated. Interesting inclusion are Crotalus horridus, Crotalus viridis, Kinosternon subrubrum, Opheodrys vernalis, and Phrynosoma cornutum.
1936 Brumwell, Malcolm J. Distributional records of the reptilia and amphibians of Kansas. Privately printed, . 22pp.
County dot maps of the Kansas herpetofauna. This work has been attributed to have been written around 1933, but that may be in error. 
Hypsiglena jani was not known from Kansas until Claude W. Hibbard collected three specimens on the Stevenson Ranch in north-central Clark County (above Clark State Lake) during June 1936 (Hibbard, 1937). Brumwell plotted this locality, which leads me to believe that the 1936 would have been the earliest date this manuscript could have been written.
1950 Rodeck, Hugo G. Guide to the turtles of Colorado. University of Colorado Museum, Leaflet 7. 9pp.
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
The first modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table and text say 97 on p. 10) and 13 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies.
1953 Schmidt, Karl P. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 280pp.
Schmidt's first edition of his standardized checklist to North American amphibians and reptiles. Includes several specific references to Kansas in the range descriptions.
1953 Oelrich, Thomas M. A new box turtle from the Pleistocene of southwestern Kansas. Copeia 1953(1):53
The holotype of Terrapene llanensis (p. 35; UMMP 26957) was described from the posterior portion of a carapace and hindlobe of a plastron along with some postcranial specimens from the last interglacial Lone Tree Arroyo locality, Meade County, Kansas. 
1956 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. Second edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (9):1-356
Hobart M. Smith's updated second edition of his first (1950) modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table says 97 on p. 10; text says 98 on p. 10) and 11 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies. The second edition has updated taxonomy, added Plestiodon laticeps, and removed Eurycea tynerensis.
1956 Clarke, Robert F. Turtles in Kansas. Kansas School Naturalist 2(4):1-15
1956 Clarke, Robert F. Identification of Kansas turtles. Kansas School Naturalist 2(4):1-3
1956 Loomis, Richard B. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 37():1195-1443
Examined 2,628 Kansas reptiles of 48 species consisting of 27 turtles of 4 species, 1,736 lizards of 12 species and 892 snakes of 32 species for chiggers. Eleven species of chiggers were recovered from reptiles.
For amphibians, 1188 individuals of 21 species were examined. Five species of chigger mite were recovered from amphibians.
1967 Gier, Herschel T. Vertebrates of the Flint Hills. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 70(1):51-59
1967 Milstead, William W. Fossil box turtles (Terrapene) from central North America, and box turtles of eastern Mexico. Copeia 1967(1):168-179
1969 Milstead, William W. Studies on the evolution of box turtles (genus Terrapene). Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 14(1):1-113
1970 Adler, Kraig. The influence of prehistoric man on the distribution of the box turtle. Annals of Carnegie Museum 41(9):263-280
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
Joseph T. Collins first Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Smith 1956)>
1974 Schwartz, Charles W. and Elizabeth R. Schwartz. The Three-toed Box Turtle in central Missouri: Its population, home range, and movements. Missouri Department of Conservation Terrestrial Series (5):29
1974 Karns, Daryl, Ray E. Ashton, Jr., and Thomas Swearingen. Illustrated Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas: An Identification Manual. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History Public Education Series(2):viii + 18
1975 Holman, J. Alan. Herpetofauna of the WaKeeney local fauna (Lower Pliocene: Clarendionian) of Trego County, Kansas. Pages 49-66 in Studies on Cenozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphy in honor of Claude W. Hibbard. Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. pp.
1976 Rundquist, Eric M. Field checklist (of) amphibians and reptiles of Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Grow, David. The KHS goes to Chetopa. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (13):2-3
Spring field trip (22 May 1976) along the Neosho River.
1977 Perry, Janice. KHS members achieve goal: Get Cottonmouth. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (21):3-4
1978 Perry, Janice. KHS successful at Miami County State Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (27):5
1979 Preston, Robert E. Late Pleistocene cold-blooded vertebrate faunas from the mid-continental United States, I. Reptilia: Testudines, Crocodilia. University of Michigan Museum of Palenontology, Papers on Paleontology. (19):1-53.
1979 Gray, Peter and Eddie Stegall. A field trip to the Red Hills. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (29):6-8
1981 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1980. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 10():7-19
1981 Boles, Richard J. D. O. R. Kansas School Naturalist 28(2):1-16
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Report to the Kansas Fish and Game Commission on the status of three amphibians in southeastern Kansas. Kansas Fish and Game Commission, Pratt. 57pp.
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
Joseph T. Collins second Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1974)>
1983 Miller, Larry L. Bourbon County field trip well attended and successful. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (54):6-7
1983 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1982 . Technical Publication of the State Biological Survey of Kansas 13():9-21
1984 Brown, Kenneth L. Pomona: A plains village variant in eastern Kansas and western Missouri. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 519pp.
1984 Secor, Stephen M. and Charles C. Carpenter. Distribution maps of Oklahoma reptiles. Oklahoma Herpetological Society Special Publication (3):1-57
1985 Lynch, John D. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Science 13():33-57
1985 Holman, J. Alan and R. George Corner. A Miocene Terrapene (Testudines: Emydidae) and other Barstovian turtles from south-central Nebraska. Herpetologica 41(1):88-93
1987 Capron, Marty B. Selected observations on south-central Kansas turtles Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (67):13-15
1987 Holman, J. Alan. Climatic significance of a late Illinoian herpetofauna from southwestern Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 27(5):129-141
Anura - Bufo sp., ?Acris sp., Rana pipiens complex
Testudines - Sternotherus odoratus (Latreille), Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus), Chrysemys picta (Schneider), Emydoidea blandingii (Holbrook), *Pseudemys hibbardi (Preston), Pseudemys scripta (Schoepff), Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus), Trionyx sp.
Squamata - Ophisaurus attenuatus Baird, Heterodon sp., Diadophis punctatus (Linnaeus), Coluber cf. C. constrictor Linnaeus, Elaphe vulpina (Baird and Girard), Lampropeltis getulus (Linnaeus), Pituophis melanoleucus (Daudin), Nerodia sipedon (Linnaeus), Regina grahami Baird and Girard, Storeria cf. S. dekayi, Thamnophis proximus (Say), Thamnophis radix (Baird and Girard), and Crotalinae indet were recovered.
1988 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1987. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (71):13-19
1988 Capron, Marty B. Observations on box turtles, genus Terrapene, in captivity. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (72):17-19
1989 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1988. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (75):15-18
1989 Collins, Joseph T. First Kansas herp counts held in 1989. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (77):11-
1989 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1989. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (78):16-21
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Maximum size records for Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):13-17
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1991 Fitch, Henry S. Reptiles and amphibians of the Kansas ecological reserves. Pages 71-74 in Ecology and Hydrology of Kansas Ecological Reserves and the Baker Wetlands. Multidisciplinary Guidebook 4. Kansas Academy of Science, Lawrence, Kansas. pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (83):7-13
1991 Ernst, Carl H. Terrapene. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (511):1-6
1991 Ernst, Carl H. Terrapene carolina. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (512):1-13
1992 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (87):12-17
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
Joseph T. Collins third Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1982)>
1994 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1993. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):15-19
1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):5-14
See, 1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Additions and corrections [to the results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994]. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):4.
1994 Riedle, J. Daren. A survey of reptiles and amphibians at Montgomery County State Fishing Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):11-13
1995 Holman, J. Alan. Pleistocene Amphibians and Reptiles. Oxford University Press, New York. 243pp.
1996 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (103):13-15
1996 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eighth annual KHS herp counts Held 1 April-31 May 1996. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (104):6-17
1996 Rundquist, Eric M. Notes on the natural history of some Kansas amphibians and reptiles: Parasites. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (105):16-17
1996 Rakestraw, J. Spring herp counts: A Kansas tradition. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (March-April):75-80
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the ninth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1997. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (108):12-17
1997 Collins, Joseph T. A report on the KHS fall field trip to the Marais des Cygnes wildlife refuges. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (110):2-3
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1998 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians & Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 131pp.
1998 Gamble, Jerre. Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hartford, Kansas. 91pp.
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the tenth annual KHS herp counts for 1998, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (112):11-18
1998 Beltz, Ellin. HerPET-POURRI Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 33(1):15-17
1999 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas Herpetological Society herp counts: A 10 year summary and evaluation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (115):42962
1999 Taggart, Travis W. Cherokee County fall 1999 herp count. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (117):6
Reported Anaxyrus woodhousii was likely A. fowleri.
2000 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2000 fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (122):6-8
2001 Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr. North American Box Turtles: A Natural History. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. pp.
2001 Taggart, Travis W. The KHS 2001 spring field trip: A rainy rendezvous. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (124):12-14
2001 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the thirteenth annual KHS herp counts for 2001, held 1 April-30 June. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):13-16
2002 Kingsbury, Bruce and Joanna Gibson. Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Midwest. Publication of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, Address not given. 152pp.
2002 Fogell, Daniel D. Occurrence and relative abundance of amphibians and reptiles at Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Homestead National Monument of America, and Pipestone National Monument within the Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network. Interim Report. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.. 6pp.
2002 Riedle, J. Daren and A. Hynek. Amphibian and reptile inventory of the Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, Labette County, Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (2):18-20
2003 Taggart, Travis W. KHS conducts first systematic road survey. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):11-12
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2003 KHS spring field trip to Wilson County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):2-5
2004 Daniel, James K. Cherokee County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):10
2005 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2005 fall field trip [to Crawford County]. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (16):19-21
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2008 Hester, Joy M, Steven J Price, and Michael E. Dorcas. Effects of Relocation on Movements and Home Ranges of Eastern Box Turtles Journal of Wildlife Management 72(3):772-777
2009 Kraus, Fred. Alien Reptiles and Amphibians: A Scientific Compendium and Analysis. SpringerVerlag, Heidelberg, Germany. 563pp.
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
Joseph T. Collins fourth Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1993)>
2010 Murrow, Daniel G. Kansas Herpetological Society spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (33):2-3
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 spring field trip to beheld in Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (37):5-7
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS Spring Field Trip to Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (38):2-4
2011 Cureton, James C. II, Anna B. Buchman, Raelynn Deaton, and William I. Lutterschmidt Molecular analysis of hybridization between the Box Turtles Terrapene carolina and T. ornata Copeia 2011(2):270-277
2012 Martin, Bradley T. Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of the American Box Turtles (Terrapene spp.). Thesis. University of Texas, Tyler, Texas. pp.
2012 Rohweder, Megan R. Spatial conservation prioritization of Kansas for terrestrial vertebrates. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 151pp.
2012 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada: Second Edition, Revised and Updated. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 152pp.
2012 Lee, David S. Hot tracks, fast turtles - The unforeseen consequences of well-intended turtle derbies. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 47(10):121-130
2012 Joyce, Walter G., Andrea Petricevic, Tyler R. Lyson, and Nicholas J. Czaplewski. A new box turtle from the Miocene/Pliocene boundary (Latest Hemphillian) of Oklahoma and a refined chronology of box turtle diversification. Journal of Paleontology 86(1):177-190
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Spring Field Trip to Bourbon County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):3
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Spring Field Trip to Schermerhorn Park, Cherokee County. Collinsorum 2(3/4):4
2013 Martin, Bradley T., Neil P.Bernstein, Roger D. Birkhead, Jim F.Koukl, Steven M.Mussmann, and John S. Placyk, Jr. Sequence-based molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography ofthe American box turtles (Terrapene spp.) with support from DNA barcoding. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 68(1):119-134
2014 Martin, Bradley T., Neil P. Bernstein , Roger D. Birkhead, Jim F. Koukl , Steven M. Mussmann and John S. Placyk, Jr. On the Reclassification of the Terrapene (Testudines: Emydidae): A Response to Fritz & Havaš. Zootaxa (3835):292–294
2014 Fritz, Uwe and Peter Havas. On the reclassification of Box Turtles (Terrapene): A response to Martin et al. (2014). Zootaxa (3835):295–298
2014 McMartin, D. Chris. Fort Leavenworth Heretofaunal Survey for 2013. Collinsorum 3(1):10
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS Fall Field Trip to Woodson County. Collinsorum 3(2-4):12
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Recent scientific and standard English name changes effecting the Kansas herpetofauna. Collinsorum 3(2-4):9-10
2015 Rhodin, Anders G. J., Scott Thomson, Georgios L. Georgalis, Hans-Volker Karl, Igo G. Danilov, Akio Takahashi, Marcelo S. de la fuente, Jason R. Bourque, Massimo Delfino, Roger Bour, John B. Iverson, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Peter Paul van Dijk. Turtles and tortoises of the world during the rise and global spread of humanity: First checklist and review of extinct pleistocene and holocene chelonians. Chelonian Research Monographs (5):66
References Hesperotestudo equicomes (Kansas Tortoise of late Pleistocene), Hesperotestudo campester (Plains Giant Tortoise of late Pliocene to early Pleistocene), Hesperotestudo turgida (Plains Tortoise of early Pleistocene), Pseudemys hibbardi (Hibbard's Cooter of late Pleistocene), Trachemys idahoensis (Idaho Slider of late Pliocene to early Pleistocene), Emydoidea blandingii (Blanding's Turtle of Pleistocene), Terrapene mexicana (Mexican Box Turtle of late Pleistocene), Terrapene ornata (Ornate Box Turtle of late Pleistocene) from Kansas.
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS Summer field trip to Caney River, Chautauqua County, Kansas. Collinsorum 5(2-3):4-5
2016 Dodd, C. Kenneth, V. Rolland, and M. K. Oli. Consequences of individual removal on persistence of a protected population of long-lived turtles. Animal Conservation 19():369-379
Modeled the potential effects of removing adult box turtles from their study site on a Florida barrier island. Predicted that the removal of more than 3.8% adults annually from a stable or declining population would drive that population to extinction within 50 years.
2017 Taggart, Travis W. and J. Daren Riedle. A Pocket Guide to Kansas Amphibians, Turtles and Lizards. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, Kansas. 69pp.
2017 Crother, Brian I. (editor) Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Eighth edition. Herpetological Circulars (43):102
2017 Mardis, Dexter R. Results from three Herpetofaunal tallies at Wichita State University’s Youngmeyer Ranch in Northwestern Elk County. Collinsorum 6(1):8-10
2017 Riedle, J. Daren, Troy Weiberg, Felena King Cooley, Simone Johnson, Tamera D. H. Riedle, and Derick Asahl. Observations of the population ecology of Three-Toed Box Turtles in small, urban forest fragments. Collinsorum 6(2-3):10-14
2017 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2017 KHS Spring Field Trip to Elk County, Kansas. Collinsorum 6(2-3):6-8
2018 Vitek, Natasha S. Delineating modern variation from extinct morphology in the fossil record using shells of Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina). PLoS One 13(3):e0193437
2018 Johnson, Stephen R. and Mary Stark. Diet of captive Three-toed Box Turtles and the potential to distribute seeds of American Ginseng. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 53(5):115-116
Report of an Ornate Box Turtle eating wild strawberries in NE Kansas during the early 1990s.
2019 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada. Third Edition. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 192pp.
2019 Palmer, Jamie L., Maris Brenn-White, Stephen Blake, and Sharon L. Deem. Mortality in Three-Toed Box Turtles (Terrapene mexicana triunguis) at two sites in Missouri. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 6(412):1-6
Studied Mexican Box Turtles in an urban park and a protected rural forest. Annual survival was high at each site 79 and 93% respectively. Winter kill was the greatest mortality factor.
2019 Riedle, J. Daren. Conservation conversations: Coming at you like a herd of turtles. Kansas Wildlife and Parks Magazine July/August():15
2020 Daniel, Richard E. and Brian S. Edmond. Atlas of Missouri Amphibians and Reptiles for 2019. Privately printed, Columbia, Missouri. 86pp.
2020 Riedle, J. Daren. Revisiting Kansas Herpetological Society field trip and Herp Count data: Distributional patterns and trend data of Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Collinsorum 9(1):7-16
2020 Martin, Bradley T., Marlis R. Douglas, Tyler K. Chafin, John S. Placyk, Jr., Roger D. Birkhead, Christopher A. Phillips, and Michael E. Douglas. Contrasting signatures of introgression in North American box turtle (Terrapene spp.) contact zones. Molecular Ecology 29(21):4186-4202
2020 Hullinger, Allison, Zackary Cordes, Daren Riedle, and William Stark. Habitat assessment of the Broad-headed Skink (Plestiodon laticeps) and the associated squamate community in eastern Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 123(1-2):137-150
2021 Martin, Bradley T. Dynamics of hybrid zones at a continental scale. Dissertation. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 241pp.
2021 Rhodin, Anders G. J., John B. Iverson, Roger Bour, Uwe Fritz, Arthur Georges, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Peter Paul van Dijk. Turtles and tortoises of the world during the rise and global spread of humanity: First checklist and review of extinct pleistocene and holocene chelonians. Chelonian Research Monographs (8):1-472
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Cherokee County: KHS-2020-02 Collinsorum 9(3):11-12
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Cherokee County: KHS-2020-03 Collinsorum 9(3):12
2021 Riedle, J. Daren. Herp Count: Montgomery County: KHS-2020-20. Collinsorum 9(3):14
2021 Bass, Neil and Emma Cleland-Leighton. An observation of the remains of an Eastern Box Turtle at Fort Leavenworth, Ks. Collinsorum 10(1):20
2021 Martin, Bradley T., Tyler K. Chafin, Marlis R. Douglas, John S. Placyk Jr., Roger D. Birkhead, Christopher A. Phillips, and Michael E. Douglas. The choices we make and the impacts they have: Machine learning and species delimitation in North American box turtles (Terrapene spp.) Molecular Ecology Resources 21(8):2801-2817
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Travis W. Taggart © 1999-2024 — w/ Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University