REPTILIA (Reptiles) SERPENTES (Snakes) NATRICIDAE (Harmless Live-bearing Snakes)

COMMON GARTERSNAKE
Thamnophis sirtalis (Linnaeus 1758)
thăm-nō-fĭs — sĭr-tāl-ŭs


Conservation Status:

State: None

Federal: None
NatureServe State: S5 - Secure
NatureServe National: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Global: G5 - Secure
CITES: None

An adult Common Gartersnake from Seward County. © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.
An adult Common Gartersnake from Lincoln County, Kansas. © Kevin Urbanek.
Common Gartersnake eating an American Bullfrog in Barton County, Kansas. © Ariel Snyder.
An adult Common Gartersnake from Pottawatomie County. Image © Jacob Basler.
A young adult Common Gartersnake from Meade County, Kansas. Image © John Tollefson.
An adult from Pratt County. Image © Ken Brunson.
Image © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.
Adult from Meade County. Image © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.
An adult from Barton County. Image © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.
An adult Common Gartersnake from Seward County. © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.
An adult from Cherokee County, Kansas. Image © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.

Diagnosis:
Harmless. The pattern/color of this snake is variable. Throughout most of the state, it has three yellow to white body stripes; one dorsally and one each laterally. The dorsal stripe may vary in the intensity of its coloration, but is usually well-defined and not encroached upon by adjacent lateral blotches. On specimens with orange or red dorsal stripes, the coloration usually starts with yellow or orange near the head and quickly transitions to the tip of the tail. The lateral stripes are less distinct and situated on second and third scale rows (counting from belly up) anteriorly. Between the stripes are two longitudinal rows of offset squarish black blotches producing a checkerboard pattern on a red (most wide-spread; parietalis type; 'red-sided' variant), yellow, green, or blue background. The belly is white, greenish, or gray, with a row of small dark spots along the edges.
Specimens from the extreme southwestern portion of their range in Kansas (Meade and Seward counties; annectans type; 'red-striped' variant) have a tan, black, yellow, or green alternating with the black blotches between the stripes. The dorsal stripe is bright red to orange. Some specimens from the Ozark Plateau of Cherokee County (sirtalis type; 'eastern' variant) have a muted pattern and color with an orange vertebral stripe and no lateral red markings.
The labials are heavily barred along their sutures and the posterior labials match the anterior labials in color. There may or may not be pair of light spots on top of the head along the suture of the parietal scales.
The young look like miniature adults with subdued coloration. Females have relatively larger heads.
Adults normally attain 410-710 mm (16-28 inches) in total length. The largest specimen from Kansas is a female (KU 189179) from Reno County with a total length of 1,130 mm (44½ inches) collected by George Ratzlaff on 5 March 1981. The maximum length throughout the range is 52 inches (Boundy, 1995). The maximum weight for a Kansas specimen is 410 grams (14½ ounces).

Distribution:
Common throughout the eastern two-thirds of Kansas. Enters western Kansas along riparian corridors where it is seldom found far from them.
Records mapped by Collins (1982) have since been reidentified (Hamilton County) or discredited/uncorroborated (Wallace County) (see Collins 1984)

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  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 1,380
    Records 
  • 1,206
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 174
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):
Allen (12); Anderson (17); Atchison (8); Barber (30); Barton (14); Bourbon (19); Brown (11); Butler (21); Chase (17); Chautauqua (7); Cherokee (34); Cheyenne (2); Clark (7); Clay (4); Cloud (3); Coffey (11); Comanche (6); Cowley (20); Crawford (36); Decatur (1); Dickinson (14); Doniphan (13); Douglas (214); Edwards (1); Elk (28); Ellis (19); Ellsworth (9); Ford (1); Franklin (33); Geary (7); Greenwood (10); Harper (14); Harvey (22); Jackson (11); Jefferson (15); Jewell (6); Johnson (71); Kingman (27); Kiowa (10); Labette (31); Leavenworth (36); Lincoln (4); Linn (30); Lyon (7); Marion (7); Marshall (9); McPherson (7); Meade (13); Miami (25); Mitchell (7); Montgomery (5); Morris (9); Nemaha (3); Neosho (15); Norton (1); Osage (14); Osborne (2); Ottawa (3); Pawnee (1); Phillips (1); Pottawatomie (27); Pratt (21); Rawlins (2); Reno (19); Republic (3); Rice (9); Riley (42); Rooks (5); Rush (2); Russell (34); Saline (13); Sedgwick (48); Seward (10); Shawnee (23); Sheridan (1); Smith (4); Stafford (17); Sumner (12); Trego (1); Unknown (11); Wabaunsee (6); Washington (5); Wilson (9); Woodson (8); Wyandotte (13);

Natural History:
Found in a wide variety of habitats, including marshes and wet meadows, margins of ponds, woodland and woodland edge, floodplains and cultivated fields; prefers areas with moderately moist vegetation. Active from March to November. Young born in late summer or fall; litters are large, varying from 4-85. Feeds chiefly on frogs and earthworms; occasionally eats toads, small mice, and other small snakes. Fitch (2001) reported the following prey items in decreasing abundance for northeast Kansas snakes: Allolbophora caliginosa (an earthworm), Lithobates blairi, Lithobates catesbeianus, Anaxyrus americanus, Anaxyrus woodhousii, Hyla chrysoscelis/versicolor, Acris crepitans, Pseudacris maculata, and three mammals (Microtus ochrogaster, Peromyscus leucopus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis).
Rundquist (1999) reported assumed hybridization with a captive male Thamnophis radix, however, given that long-term sperm storage and multiple paternity have been reported in T. sirtalis, there are other interpretations not considered.

Occurrence Activity:
White dates indicate there is at least a single recorded occurrence on that date. The darker blue a date is, the greater the relative number of observations for that date.
Remarks:
First reported in Kansas by Hallowell (1857) based on two specimens collected by Fort Riley surgeon William A. Hammond. The earliest available specimen (USNM 11934) was collected at Fort Riley by the post surgeon Bernard J. D. Irwin  sometime during 1867.
Boundy (1999) found evidence to elevate the annectens phenotype present in north Texas and presumably (because he didn't include samples) those populations in Seward and southwest Meade counties in Kansas.
The annectans phenotype also shows up in extreme southwest Missouri and northwest Arkansas.
The annectens form was first mentioned from Kansas by Fitch (1961) and confirmed by Irwin (1992). The 'eastern' form was first mentioned from Kansas by Collins, Collins, and Taggart (2010).

Bibliography:
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1857 Hallowell, Edward. Notice of a collection of reptiles from Kansas and Nebraska presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences, by Doctor Hammond, U. S. A. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 8():238-253
Contains reference to twenty-four species collected from 'Kansas', and includes the original description of Microps lineatus (=Tropidoclonion lineatum) from Kansas on page 241.
1877 Mozley, Annie E. List of Kansas snakes in the museum of the Kansas State University. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 6():34-35
First attempt to compile a complete list of snakes reported from Kansas. Most specimens were from Douglas and Wallace counties.
Contains obvious identification/locality errors Thamnophis marcianus (Douglas County) and Heterodon simus (Wallace County).
Neroida holbrookii = Nerodia rhombifer.
Use of the name 'Kansas State University' actually refers to The University of Kansas where Annie E. (Mozley)Boddington received her BS @ KU in 1878 (see also Gloyd 1928).
1880 Cragin, Francis W. A preliminary catalogue of Kansas reptiles and batrachians Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 7():112-123
Also listed the Scarlet Snake (Cemophora coccinea) [=Ophibolus doliatus var. coccineus] and Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) [=Spelerpes ruber] from Kansas.
1882 Yarrow, Henry C. Check list of North American Reptilia and Batrachia with catalogue of specimens in U. S. National Museum. Bulletin of the United States National Museum (24):1-249
A summary of all herpetological species known at the time, with reference to specimens in the United States National Museum. Including one three Acris blanchardi from Fort Riley; Agkistrodon contortrix from Fort Riley; three Ambystoma mavortium from "Kansas" and another from Fort Riley; one Anaxyrus woodhousii from "Kansas"; one Anaxyrus cognatus from "Kansas" and another from Fort Riley; one Carphophis vermis from Fort Scott; three Coluber constrictor from "Kansas" and two from Fort Riley; one Crotalus horridus from 1858; one Diadophis punctatus from Hyatt [Hyette sic], Kansas (Anderson County); one Graptemys pseudogeographica from the Republican River in Kansas;   two Heterodon nasicus from Fort Riley; one Lampropeltis calligaster from Neosho Falls; one Lampropeltis holbrooki from Fort Riley, one from "Natchez", Kansas, and one other from Shawnee Mission, Kansas;one Lampropeltis gentilis from Fort Riley and one other from the Republican River, Kansas; one Pantherophis obsoletus from Fort Riley;fourteen Phrynosoma douglassi from "Kansas" and four from Fort Riley; three Phrynosoma cornutum from Fort Riley (Riley County);  three Pituophis catenifer from "Platte Valley", Kansas [likely from eastern Colorado prior to 1861] and two specimens from Fort Riley; one Plestiodon septentrionalis from Neosho Falls (Woodson County); one Plestiodon obsoletus from Fort Riley; one Thamnophis sirtalis from "Kansas"; one Nerodia sipedon from Fort Riley and another from Neosho Falls; one Scincella lateralis from Fort Scott (Bourbon County); one Thamnophis proximus from Fort Riley; four Sceloporus consobrinus from Fort Riley; one Tantilla nigriceps from Fort Riley; four Thamnophis sirtalis from "Kansas" and two from Little Blue River, Kansas; 
1885 Cragin, Francis W. Recent additions to the list of Kansas reptiles and batrachians, with further notes on species previously reported. Bulletin of the Washburn College Laboratory of Natural History 1(3):100-103
1885 Cragin, Francis W. Second contribution to the herpetology of Kansas, with observations on the Kansas fauna. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 9():136-140
1900 Cope, Edward D. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Pages 153-1270 in Report of the U. S. National Museum for the Year Ending June 30, 1898 , Washington, D. C. pp.
1903 Branson, Edwin B. Snakes of Kansas Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 41pp.
Describes all snake species reported from Kansas, considering doubtful those species that the author has not encountered himself. This list contains twenty-nine valid species. Collections examined included State University (KU), State House, Washburn College (WU), Ottawa University, State Normal School (ESU), State Agricultural College (KSU), and several high schools in Kansas. Examined the material available to Mozley (1878) and determined that of the thirty-three species listed, only twenty-three species were valid currently. And that Cragin's (1880) list of thirty-two species included eight specimens on the authority of Mozley that this author could not verify in any collection.
1904 Branson, Edwin B. Snakes of Kansas. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 2(13):353-430
1908 Ruthven, Alexander G. Variations and genetic relationships of the garter-snakes. Bulletin of the United States National Museum (61):1-201
1911 Hurter, Julius. Herpetology of Missouri. Transactions of the Academy of Science St. Louis 20(5):59-274
1925 Linsdale, Jean M. Land Vertebrates of a Limited Area in Eastern Kansas. Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 312pp.
1927 Burt, Charles E. An annotated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Riley County, Kansas. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (189):12
Accounts on forty species known from the vicinity of Manhattan, Riley County, Kansas. There have been several scientific names changes since publication, which is understandable... however, some usages cannot be explained by subsequent taxonomic reappraisals(e.g.  Gastrophryne carolinensis for Gastrophryne olivacea). The writer lists Eumeces (=Plestiodon) obsoletus and E. guttulatus yet correctly reasoning that the latter is the young of the former. Within the account of Tantilla gracilis (a common form) the writer mentions that T. nigriceps was reported from Riley County by Branson (1904) but that the specimens at Kansas State were absent at the time of publication. The Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) was first reported from Riley County by Branson (1904) and is reported by the writer based on a specimen in the museum at Kansas State University by Professor E. A. Popenoe. The Prairie Rattlesnake is not currently native to Riley County, and closest reliable localities are 150 to the west.
1927 Linsdale, Jean M. Amphibians and reptiles of Doniphan County, Kansas. Copeia 1927(164):75-81
1929 Taylor, Edward H. A revised checklist of the snakes of Kansas. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 19(5):53-62
1932 Gloyd, Howard K. The herpetological fauna of the Pigeon Lake Region, Miami County, Kansas. Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 15():389-408
First record of Notophthalmus viridescens from Kansas. Second record (after the type locality) of Pseudacris crucifer from Kansas.
1933 Brumwell, Malcolm J. Distributional records of the reptilia and amphibians of Kansas. Privately printed, . 22pp.
County dot maps of the Kansas herpetofauna. This work has been attributed to have been written around 1933, but that may be in error.
1933 Burt, Charles E. Some distributional and ecological records of Kansas reptiles. Transactions of the Academy of Science St. Louis 26():186-208
1934 Burt, Charles E. and W. L. Hoyle. Additional records of the reptiles of the central prairie region of the United States. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():193-216
1935 Burt, Charles E. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16(3):311-366
1935 Burt, Charles E. and William L. Hoyle. Additional records of the reptiles of the central prairie region of the United States Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():193-216
1936 Hurd, Myron Alec. The reptiles of Cherokee County, Kansas. Thesis. Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, Kansas. 103pp.
Under the supervision of thesis adviser Harry H. Hall. Report on 38 species (8 turtles, 7 lizards, and 23 snakes)... most unsubstantiated. Interesting inclusion are Crotalus horridus, Crotalus viridis, Kinosternon subrubrum, Opheodrys vernalis, and Phrynosoma cornutum.
1937 Grant, Chapman. Herpetological notes from Central Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 18(3):370-372
1939 Tihen, Joseph A. and James M. Sprague Amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of the Meade County State Park Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 42():499-512
1947 Hall, Henry H. and Hobart M. Smith Selected records of reptiles and amphibians from southeastern Kansas Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 49(4):447-454
Report on certain Kansas specimens housed in the collection at what is now Pittsburg State University. Included are several species of dubious status today, including Cryptobranchus alleganiensis from the Neosho and Spring rivers (the only specimens from those significant drainages ever documented), Ambystoma maculatum from just north of Pittsburg, Crawford County, Heterodon nasicus from Crawford County, Opheodrys vernalis from Crawford County, Sonora episcopa from Crawford County, Agkistrodon piscivorus from Cherokee County, Crotalus atrox from Crawford County, and Crotalus viridis from Crawford County. They report several significant range extensions including Kinosternon flavescens from Turkey Creek in southeast Cherokee County, Graptemys geographica from just north of Pittsburg, Crotaphytus collaris from near Columbus, Cherokee County, Sceloporus consobrinus from just north of Pittsburg, Phrynosoma cornutum from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Heterodon platirhinos from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Haldea striatula from Crawford County, Sistrurus tergeminus from Crawford County, and a 402 lb Macrochelys temminckii in Cherokee County from just east of Chetopa (Labette County). They allude to the potential for Anaxyrus fowleri to occur in southeast Kansas and for native populations of Crotalus atrox in south central Kansas (in part from the disclosure that John R. Breukelman [then of ESU] had obtained three specimens in Woods County Oklahoma, 3/4 of a mile south of the Kansas line). None of the specimens the paper was based on, exist today.
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
The first modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table and text say 97 on p. 10) and 13 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies.
1951 Wolfenbarger, Keith. A. Systematic and Biological Studies on North American Chiggers of the genus Eutrombicula (Acarina, Trombiculidae). Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 77pp.
1951 Brumwell, Malcolm J. An ecological survey of the Fort Leavenworth Military Reservation American Midland Naturalist 45(1):187-231
Published posthumously. Lieutenant Brumwell died December 14, 1941, as a result of injuries incurred during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. This paper is a condensed version of his thesis for the Master's degree.
1953 Schmidt, Karl P. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 280pp.
Schmidt's first edition of his standardized checklist to North American amphibians and reptiles. Includes several specific references to Kansas in the range descriptions.
1956 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. Second edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (9):1-356
Hobart M. Smith's updated second edition of his first (1950) modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table says 97 on p. 10; text says 98 on p. 10) and 11 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies. The second edition has updated taxonomy, added Plestiodon laticeps, and removed Eurycea tynerensis.
1956 Loomis, Richard B. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 37():1195-1443
Examined 2,628 Kansas reptiles of 48 species consisting of 27 turtles of 4 species, 1,736 lizards of 12 species and 892 snakes of 32 species for chiggers. Eleven species of chiggers were recovered from reptiles.
For amphibians, 1188 individuals of 21 species were examined. Five species of chigger mite were recovered from amphibians.
1961 Fitch, Henry S. and T. Paul Maslin. Occurrence of the garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History 13(5):289-308
1962 Gish, Charles D. The Herpetofauna of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 34pp.
1965 Fitch, Henry S. An ecological study of the garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History 15(10):493-504
1970 Fitch, Henry S. Reproductive cycles in lizards and snakes. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (52):1-247
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
Joseph T. Collins first Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Smith 1956)>
1975 Rundquist, Eric M. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kingman County, Kansas. Privately Printed, Lawrence, Kansas. 3pp.
Short accounts for twenty-nine recognized amphibians and reptiles from Kingman County, Kansas. With habitat descriptions and for some species, estimates of population density.
1975 Rundquist, Eric M. First KHS field trip yields three county records. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (7):1-3
Narration of the activities and species found during the KHS field trip to Kingman County, Kansas. From the title of the article, there were three county records were obtained, however, only Plestiodon septentrionalis is indicated as being 'new'.
1976 Rundquist, Eric M. Field checklist (of) amphibians and reptiles of Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Caldwell, Janalee P. and Gregory. Glass. Vertebrates of the Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Pages 62-76 in Preliminary inventory of the biota of Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Report No. 5. State Biological Survey of Kansas, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Grow, David. Large garter snake caught at zoo. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (12):8
Winter activity in several herp species on the grounds of the Sedgwick County Zoo.
1976 Capron, Marty and Jan Perry. A July weekend in Great Bend. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (14):1-2
1976 Lardie, Richard L. Brood of Texas garter snakes from Oklahoma. Bulletin of the Oklahoma Herpetological Society 1(3):38
1976 Pisani, George R. Comments on the courtship and mating mechanics of Thamnophis (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 10(2):139-142
1977 Knight, James L. and Joseph T. Collins. The amphibians and reptiles of Cheyenne County, Kansas, Report Number 15. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 19pp.
1977 Trott, Gene. Chikaskia River wildlife study. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (19):2-3
1977 Perry, Janice. KHS members achieve goal: Get Cottonmouth. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (21):3-4
1978 Li, Amy. Comparative reproduction studies of two colubrid snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, Lampropeltis triangulum syspila): Advanced Biology Report. Lawrence High School, Lawrence, Kansas. 15pp.
1978 Curl, Richard L. Final Environmental Statement: Milford Lake Kansas operation and maintenance. US Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District. 158pp.
Notable mentions: Spotted Salamander, Smooth Green Snake
1978 Fitch, Henry S. and E. Raymond Hall. A 20year record of succession on reseeded fields of tallgrass prairie on the Rockefeller Experimental Tract. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Special Publication (4):1-15
1978 Li, Amy. Comparative reproduction studies of two colubrid snakes. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (24):5-8
1978 Warner, M. and R. Wencel. Chikaskia River study held near Caldwell. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (25):15-16
1978 Capron, Marty. Four county collecting raid: A south central Kansas herping saga. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (26):9-12
1978 Perry, Janice. KHS successful at Miami County State Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (27):5
1978 Collins, Joseph T. and Janalee P. Caldwell. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1977. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 6():70-88
1979 Gray, Peter and Eddie Stegall. A field trip to the Red Hills. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (29):6-8
1979 Guarisco, Hank. Preliminary laboratory observatoins of predation by native Texas Garter Snakes upon hatchling Five-lined Skinks. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (32):7-8
1980 Clarke, Robert F. Herptiles and fishes of the western Arkansas River in Kansas. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 55pp.
A summary of known information on the amphibian, reptile, and fish faunas of the Arkansas River above Great Bend. The report details associated field activities for procuring fish, however no new surveys for amphibians and reptiles were undertaken. Information on herps from Finney County was provided by Michael Rush (FHSU) and thus made available before the publication of his thesis (Rush, 1981). The western Arkansas River drainage had experienced little attention by herpetologists before this study, and the species accounts reflect that paucity of data. Additionally, the report omits several older records (e.g. for Anaxyrus debilisThamnophis cyrtopsis, and Lampropeltis calligaster) from the westernmost reaches of the Arkansas River drainage in Kansas.
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Report to the Kansas Fish and Game Commission on the status of three amphibians in southeastern Kansas. Kansas Fish and Game Commission, Pratt. 57pp.
1982 Fitch, Henry S. Resources of a snake community in prairie-woodland habitat of northeastern Kansas. Pages 83-97 in Herpetological communities: A symposium of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles and the Herpetologists League, August 1977.  Wildlife Research Reports 12. 239 pp. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D. C. pp.
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
Joseph T. Collins second Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1974)>
1983 Overdeer, Danny C. Reptiles of the Mesquite Grasslands of Southwest Oklahoma. Dissertation. Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. 34pp.
1983 Miller, Larry L. Bourbon County field trip well attended and successful. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (54):6-7
1984 Brown, Kenneth L. Pomona: A plains village variant in eastern Kansas and western Missouri. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 519pp.
1984 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1983. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (56):15-26
Invalidated the specimens of Thamnophis sirtalis from Hamilton County (reidentified as T. cyrtopsis; KU 2088) and Wallace County mapped in Collins, 1982.
1986 Dillenbeck, Tom. Snake killings. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (64):15
1986 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1986. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (66):9-16
1987 Simmons, John E. September 1987 field trip report. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (69):42894
1988 Dillenbeck, Tom. Winter sightings. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (71):12
1988 Miller, Larry L. Harper County KHS field trip well attended. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (72):5-6
1989 Platt, Dwight R. Seasonal activity of snakes on a sand prairie. Pages 251-254 in Proceedings of the 11th North American Prairie Conference University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. pp.
1989 Collins, Joseph T. First Kansas herp counts held in 1989. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (77):11-
1990 Lardie, Richard L. Kansas threatened species and protection of the Gypsum Hills habitat. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (80):14-15
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Results of second Kansas herp count held during April-May 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):10-12
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Maximum size records for Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):13-17
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1991 Fitch, Henry S. Reptiles and amphibians of the Kansas ecological reserves. Pages 71-74 in Multidisciplinary Guidebook 4. Kansas Academy of Science, Lawrence. pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (83):7-13
1991 Capron, Marty. Unusual foraging behavior in water snakes (Nerodia) around drying pools in southcentral Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (84):14-15
1991 Collins, Joseph T. Results of third Kansas herp count held during April-May 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (85):9-13
1992 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (87):12-17
1992 Collins, Joseph T. Results of the fourth Kansas herp count held during April-May 1992. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (89):10-
1992 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the KHS 1992 fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (90):4
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Thamnophis sirtalis. Geographic distribution. Herpetological Review 23():92
1992 Irwin, Kelly J. Geographic distribution: Thamnophis sirtalis annectens Herpetological Review 23(1):28
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
Joseph T. Collins third Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1982)>
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the fifth Kansas herp count held during April-June 1993 . Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (94):7-11
1994 Fitzgerald, Eve C. and Charles Nilon Classification of habitats for endangered and threatened species in Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 98pp.
1994 Riedle, J. Daren. Distribution of the Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) in Chautauqua, Elk, and Montgomery counties, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (95):43051
1994 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1993. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):15-19
1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):5-14
See, 1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Additions and corrections [to the results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994]. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):4.
1994 Riedle, J. Daren. A survey of reptiles and amphibians at Montgomery County State Fishing Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):11-13
1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Additions and corrections [to the results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994]. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):4
See, Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):5-14.
1994 Dloogatch , Michael A. (Editor) Herpetology 1994 Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 29(12):282-283
Note on the Fitch (1993) paper in the Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Sciences (96(3-4): 213-224) on the abundance.
1995 Anderson, Lewis, Mark Shaw, Jeff Blodig, and Tom Walker. Report to the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks: Herps encountered during REmap project, summer 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (99):10-17
1995 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (100):24-47
1995 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the seventh annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (101):11-17
1995 Rundquist, Eric M. Additional KHS herp counts for 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (102):11-
1996 Rossman, Douglas A., Neil B. Ford, and Ricahrd A. Seigel. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. pp.
1996 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (103):13-15
1996 Miller, Larry L. Results of the KHS 1995 fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (103):3
1996 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eighth annual KHS herp counts Held 1 April-31 May 1996. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (104):6-17
1996 Rundquist, Eric M. Notes on the natural history of some Kansas amphibians and reptiles: Parasites. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (105):16-17
1996 Miller, Larry L. Third graders conduct amphibian and reptile field study. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (106):15
1996 Miller, Larry L. Many amphibian and reptile species identified during KHS 1996 fall field trip to Wabaunsee County. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (106):2-3
1996 Rakestraw, J. Spring herp counts: A Kansas tradition. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (March-April):75-80
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the ninth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1997. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (108):12-17
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Addendum to 1997 KHS herp counts. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (109):14-15
1997 Collins, Joseph T. A report on the KHS fall field trip to the Marais des Cygnes wildlife refuges. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (110):2-3
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1998 Gamble, Jerre Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hartford, Kansas. 91pp.
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the tenth annual KHS herp counts for 1998, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (112):11-18
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. KDWP herp sting so far nets nine on Kansas and Federal charges. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (112):5-6
1998 Collins, Joseph T. Results of the KHS silver anniversary fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (114):6-
1999 Boundy, J. Jeffery Systematics of the Common Garter Snake, Thamnophis sirtalis. Dissertation. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. 497pp.
1999 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas Herpetological Society herp counts: A 10 year summary and evaluation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (115):42962
1999 Taggart, Travis W. Cherokee County fall 1999 herp count. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (117):6
Reported Anaxyrus woodhousii was likely A. fowleri.
1999 Rundquist, Eric M. Garter snake hybridization. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (118):15
2000 Fitch, Henry S. Population structure and biomass of some common snakes in central North America. Scientific Papers of the Natural History Museum University of Kansas (17):1-7
2000 Miller, Larry L. A winter snake in Shawnee County. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (119):11
2000 Taggart, Travis W. KHS spring field trip sets record for attendance. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (120):5-5
2000 Taggart, Travis W. Biogeographic analysis of the reptiles (Squamata) in Ellis County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (121):7-16
2000 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eleventh and twelfth annual KHS herpetofaunal counts for 1999-2000, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (122):11-16
2000 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2000 fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (122):6-8
2001 Johnson, Richard W. Spatial ecology of the Eastern Coachwhip (Masticophis flagellum flagellum) in and eastern Texas upland community. Thesis. Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, Texas. 54pp.
2001 Fitch, Henry S. Further study of the garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, in northeastern Kansas. Scientific Papers of the Natural History Museum University of Kansas (19):1-6
2001 Lardie, Richard L. The subspecific status of the Common Garter Snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, in western Oklahoma. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (123):16-18
2001 Guarisco, Hank. Ode to an ophidion autumn. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (123):19
2001 Taggart, Travis W. The KHS 2001 spring field trip: A rainy rendezvous. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (124):12-14
2001 Ellis, Mark R. Reproduction in the Common Garter Snake in Shawnee County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):12
2001 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the thirteenth annual KHS herp counts for 2001, held 1 April-30 June. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):13-16
2002 Kingsbury, Bruce and Joanna Gibson. Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Midwest. Publication of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, Address not given. 152pp.
2002 Riedle, J. Daren and A. Hynek. Amphibian and reptile inventory of the Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, Labette County, Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (2):18-20
2002 Ellis, Mark R. Fall 2002 KHS field trip to Washington County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (2):4-5
2002 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2002 fall field Trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):11-13
To Washington County, Kansas (also includes ancillary counts from Clay and Marshall counties).
2002 Miller, Larry L. Osage County herp count II. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):15
2002 Miller, Larry L. Shawnee County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):15
2002 Miller, Larry L. Sumner County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):15
2003 Freeman, Craig C. A natural areas inventory of the Ft. Leavenworth Military Reservation, Leavenworth County, Kansas. II. Open-file Report No. 117. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence, Kansas. 199pp.
2003 Taggart, Travis W. KHS conducts first systematic road survey. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):11-12
2003 Platt, Dwight R. Lizards and snakes (Order Squamata) of Harvey County, Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):13-20
2003 Fitch, Henry S. Reproduction in snakes of the Fitch Natural History Reservation in northeastern Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):21-24
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2003 KHS spring field trip to Wilson County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):2-5
2003 Miller, Larry L. and Suzanne L. Miller. Wakarusa herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):10
2003 Volkmann, Al. Cowley County herp count 1. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):7
2003 Collins, Joseph T. Douglas County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):8
2003 Miller, Larry L. Indian Creek herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):9
2003 Suleiman, Gibran. Fort Riley herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):9
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2003 fall field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (8):14-15
2003 Fitch, Henry S., Scott Sharp, and Kylee Sharp. Snakes of the University of Kansas biotic succession area. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (8):20-21
2003 Setser, Kirk and John F. Cavitt Effects of burning on snakes in Kansas, USA, tallgrass prairie. Natural Areas Journal 23(4):315-319
2004 Delisle, Jennifer M. and William H. Busby Biological inventory for vertebrates at Fort Larned National Historic Site of the southern plains network. Natural Heritage Inventory, Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 61pp.
2004 Fitch, Henry S. The effect of female size on number of eggs or young in snakes. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (9):11-12
2004 Fitch, Henry S. Food surplus and body size in local populations of snakes. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (10):14-16
2004 Volkmann, Al. Cowley County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):10
2004 Miller, Larry L. Sumner County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):11-12
2004 Ellis, Mark R. and Kathy Ellis. Wakarusa herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):12
2004 Schmidt, Curtis J. Geographic distribution: Thamnophis sirtalis. Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):14
County record, Seward County, Kansas.
2004 Rehmeier, Ryan L. and R. S. Matlack. Life history. Thamnophis sirtalis. Diet. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):15
2005 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2005 fall field trip [to Crawford County]. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (16):19-21
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2008 Wiens, Jonathan P. Habitat use and abundance of the Common Garter Snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, at the northern limit of its range in Manitoba. Thesis. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. 132pp.
2009 Maxell, Bryce A., Paul Hendricks, M. T. Gates, and S. Lenard. Montana amphibian and reptile status assessment, literature review, and conservation plan. Montana Natural Heritage Program, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 642pp.
2009 Murrow, Daniel G. KHS 2009 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (29):42769
2010 Miller, Larry L. Investigation of the Checkered Garter Snake in Kansas with notes on other Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles encountered. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 31pp.
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
Joseph T. Collins fourth Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1993)>
2010 Murrow, Daniel G. Kansas Herpetological Society spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (33):2-3
2010 Gray, Brian S. Distribution of native and exotic earthworms in the eastern United States: Implications for the ecology of vermivorous snakes. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 45(5):73-86
2011 McMartin, David C. U. S. Army 2011 Fort Leavenworth Herpetofaunal Survey: 23 April - 09 May 2011. Privately printed, Leavenworth, Kansas. 33pp.
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 spring field trip to beheld in Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (37):5-7
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS Spring Field Trip to Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (38):2-4
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 Fall Field Trip to Lovewell State Park Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):4-5
2011 McMartin, D. Chris. Herp Count: Fort Leavenworth Herpetofaunal Survey for 2011. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):8-9
2011 Houck, Mike. Fort Riley Herpetofaunal Survey for 2011. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):9
2011 Dloogatch , Michael A. (Editor) Herpetology 2011. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 46(7):90
Note on the Mooi et al. (2011) paper [Copeia 2011(2): 187-200] regarding color variation in Thamnophis sirtalis.
2011 Mooi, Randall D., Jonathan P. Wiens, and Gary S. Casper. Extreme color variation within populations Thamnophis sirtalis, in central North America, subspecies. Copeia 2011(2):187-200
2012 Rohweder, Megan R. Spatial conservation prioritization of Kansas for terrestrial vertebrates. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 151pp.
2013 Kauffman, Greg Lee. Stable isotope analysis of a middle woodland population from north central Kansas. Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 110pp.
2013 Miller, Larry L. Wellington Lake Herpetological Survey. Collinsorum 2(1/2):12
2013 Sinclair, Tom A four-day spring snake count across northern Kansas. Collinsorum 2(1/2):9
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Spring Field Trip to Bourbon County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):3
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Fall Field Trip to Atchison County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):4
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Spring Field Trip to Schermerhorn Park, Cherokee County. Collinsorum 2(3/4):4
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Summer Field Trip to Coldwater Lake, Comanche County. Collinsorum 2(3/4):5
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Fall Field Trip to Butler County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):6
2013 Mardis, Dexter and Kevin Scott. 2013 Kansas Herpetofaunal Counts. Collinsorum 2(3/4):7
2013 Johnson, Stephen R. Half-time herping on one big prairie. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 48(5):65-66
2014 McMartin, D. Chris. Fort Leavenworth Heretofaunal Survey for 2013. Collinsorum 3(1):10
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS Fall Field Trip to Woodson County. Collinsorum 3(2-4):12
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Recent scientific and standard English name changes effecting the Kansas herpetofauna. Collinsorum 3(2-4):9-10
2015 Brown, Kasandra A. Occupancy Modeling Of Herpetofauna And Grassland Nesting Birds At Quivira National Wildlife Refuge. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 72pp.
2015 Mike Houck. 2015 Fort Riley Herpetofaunal Count final report. Collinsorum 4(1):10-11
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Spring Field Trip to the Greenhorn Limestone of Russell County. Collinsorum 4(3):2
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Summer Field Trip In The Harvey County Sandhills. Collinsorum 4(3):3
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Fall Field Trip Held In Washington County. Collinsorum 4(3):4
2015 Gray, Brian S. Natural history observations of the Common Gartersnake, Thamnophis sirtalis, from northwest Pennsylvania. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 50(5):61-72
2016 Pittman, Galen L., Henry S. Fitch, and W. Dean Kettle Vertebrate animals on the Fitch Natural History Reservation (1948-2002) Kansas Biological Survey Report Number 188, Lawrence. 48pp.
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Spring 2016 KHS field trip to Clark County was a soggy success. Collinsorum 5(2-3):2-3
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS Summer field trip to Caney River, Chautauqua County, Kansas. Collinsorum 5(2-3):4-5
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS ‘Fall’ field trip to Barber County. Collinsorum 5(2-3):6-7
2017 Mardis, Dexter R. Results from three Herpetofaunal tallies at Wichita State University’s Youngmeyer Ranch in Northwestern Elk County. Collinsorum 6(1):8-10
2017 Wiese, Joshua D., Brice Krohn, and Andrew J. Caven Common Gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis) mortality likely resulting from cold exposure following late winter hibernaculum emergence Collinsorum 6(2-3):
2017 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2017 KHS Spring Field Trip to Elk County, Kansas. Collinsorum 6(2-3):6-8
2018 Houck, Mike. Herp Count: Fort Riley Military Installation Collinsorum 7(1):17
2020 Daniel, Richard E. and Brian S. Edmond. Atlas of Missouri Amphibians and Reptiles for 2019. Privately printed, Columbia, Missouri. 86pp.
2020 Riedle, J. Daren. Revisiting Kansas Herpetological Society field trip and Herp Count data: Distributional patterns and trend data of Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Collinsorum 9(1):7-16
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Neosho County: KHS-2020-01 Collinsorum 9(3):11
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Cherokee County: KHS-2020-02 Collinsorum 9(3):11-12
2021 Riedle, J. Daren, Tamera D. Riedle, Zachary Riedle, and Greya Riedle. Herp Count: Pratt County: KHS-2020-05 Collinsorum 9(3):12
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Cherokee County: KHS-2020-03 Collinsorum 9(3):12
2021 Riedle, J. Daren, Tamera D. Riedle, Zachary Riedle, and Greya Riedle. Herp Count: Stafford County: KHS-2020-34. Collinsorum 9(3):16
2022 Hallas, Joshua M., Thomas L. Parchman, and Chris R. Feldman Phylogenomic analyses resolve relationships among garter snakes (Thamnophis: Natricinae: Colubridae) and elucidate biogeographic history and morphological evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 167():13
Utilized a genome-wide high-throughput sequencing data and near-complete taxon sampling to estimate a robust phylogeny for Thamnophis.
Account Last Updated:
3/4/2022 9:22:20 PM