REPTILIA (Reptiles) SERPENTES (Snakes) CROTALIDAE (Pit Vipers)

WESTERN MASSASAUGA
Sistrurus tergeminus (Say 1823)
sĭs-trū-rŭs — tĕr-gĕm-ĭn-ŭs


Conservation Status:

State: None

Federal: None
NatureServe State: S3 - Vulnerable
NatureServe National: N3 - Vulnerable
NatureServe Global: G3 - Vulnerable
CITES: None

An adult Western Massasauga from Stafford County. © Jacob Basler.
An adult Western Massasauga from Comanche County. © Maci Loughrea.
A young Western Massasauga from Barber County, Kansas. Image by Jacob Basler.
An adult Western Massasauga from Crawford County, KS. Submitted by Robert Mangile.
A juvenile Western Massasauga from near Cheney Reservoir, Reno County. © Cole Campbell.
An adult Western Massasauga from Harper County. Image © Travis W. Taggart.
A juvenile Western Massasauga from Morris County, Kansas. © Lisa Wehrly.
An aberrantly patterned adult Western Massasauga, from Russell County. © Curtis J. Schmidt.
A neonate Western Massasauga from Pottawatomie County. © Jacob Basler.
Adult Western Massasauga from Barton County. Image © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.

Diagnosis:
DANGEROUSLY VENOMOUS (a threat to life or limb): Smallest rattlesnake in Kansas. Small pit on each side of the head between and slightly below eye and nostril, a small rattle on the tail, and nine large scales on top of the head. Head, body, and tail are gray or light brown with 20–50 dark brown blotches on the back; smaller bands on the tail. Belly mottled, blotched, or light with an indistinct pattern. Young look like miniature adults.
The Western Massasauga is a short and relatively thick-bodied snake. There is a cheek-stripe on both sides of the head that starts at the eye and runs diagonally down and backward to the jaw. The top of the head is marked by two stripes that continue on to the neck. The dorsal background color is tan to light grey, with black-edged dark brown blotches along the back, and smaller alternating diffuse dark brown blotches on its sides. The dorsal blotches form crossbands near the tail. The belly is white to cream with scattered small diffuse black markings. The end of the tail has a relatively small rattle on it. Unlike other Kansas rattlesnakes, the Western Massasauga has nine enlarged scales on the top of their head.
The Western Massasauga has elliptical pupils and a heat-sensing pit between (and below) the nostril and eye on each side of its head. It also has a large, triangular head that is wider than the neck when viewed from above.
Adults normally grow 457-760 mm (18- 30 inches) in total length. The largest specimen from Kansas is a male (KU 197200) from Coffey County with a total length of 850 mm (33½ inches, including rattle) collected by G. Lairson on 14 June 1984. The maximum length throughout the range is 39½ inches (Conant and Collins, 1998).

Distribution:
Locally abundant throughout much of the eastern two-thirds of the state, yet conspicuously absent from the Ozark Plateau and rare in the Drift Hills. Makes it into the western third of the state along the Arkansas and Cimarron rivers.
(,   Museum Voucher) (,   Observation) (,   Literature Record) (,   iNat Record)
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  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 883
    Records 
  • 746
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 137
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):
Allen (8); Anderson (11); Atchison (1); Barber (101); Barton (138); Bourbon (3); Butler (25); Chase (39); Chautauqua (1); Clark (3); Clay (1); Coffey (5); Comanche (57); Cowley (31); Crawford (1); Dickinson (1); Douglas (6); Elk (33); Ellis (29); Ellsworth (58); Finney (2); Franklin (9); Geary (1); Greenwood (31); Hamilton (1); Harper (19); Harvey (2); Jackson (1); Jefferson (1); Kingman (12); Kiowa (15); Labette (2); Lincoln (4); Linn (3); Lyon (14); Marion (1); Marshall (1); McPherson (2); Meade (6); Miami (1); Mitchell (3); Montgomery (2); Neosho (3); Osage (8); Osborne (1); Ottawa (4); Pawnee (1); Pottawatomie (12); Pratt (4); Reno (25); Republic (2); Rice (4); Riley (3); Rooks (2); Rush (2); Russell (64); Saline (5); Sedgwick (1); Shawnee (4); Smith (2); Stafford (31); Sumner (2); Trego (2); Unknown (3); Wabaunsee (5); Washington (5); Wilson (2); Woodson (1);

Natural History:
Found in a wide variety of habitats ranging from arid open sagebrush prairie and rocky, prairie hillsides to open wetlands; seems to reach a peak of abundance in grassy wetlands where it overwinters in crayfish burrows. Diurnal during spring and fall and prowls at night during summer. Three to 13 young per litter are born in July and August. Eats frogs, lizards, other snakes, and rodents.

Occurrence Activity:
White dates indicate there is at least a single recorded occurrence on that date. The darker blue a date is, the greater the relative number of observations for that date.
Remarks:
The Western Massasauga was first reported from Kansas by Cope (1859) based on a specimen collected by William A. Hammond (surgeon stationed at Fort Riley 1849 to 1860) and with the locality "Kansas". The oldest existing specimens are KU 555282 from 1888 (no other information).
Say's (1823) original description listed the locality as "between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains" (with no type specimen). Smith and Taylor (1950) subsequently restricted the type locality to Winfield, Cowley County, Kansas. Restricted type localities carry no weight in nomenclatural priority.
Woodburne (1956) first commented on the isolated population in Meade County and adjacent Oklahoma. Small populations exist along the Arkansas River between larger contiguous populations found east of Kiowa County, Kansas, and west of Prowers County, Colorado (see Hammerson, 1999).
In Kansas, this taxon reaches its peak observable abundance in two distinct habitat types. The first is the upland grasslands of the eastern Smoky Hills, particularly above the Saline and Smoky Hill rivers, and the eastern Red Hills Prairie. This species is also observably abundant in the vicinity of large marshes such as Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Area, Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, and Jamestown Wildlife Area.
Burt (1935) reported a specimen found under a rock in a prairie ledge one mile northeast of Otto, Cowley County, Kansas, on 6 May 1934.


Bibliography:
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1823 Say, Thomas. In James, Edwin. Pages 503 in Account of an expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819, '20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, Secretary of War, under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. Vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea., Philadelphia. pp.
Contains the original description of Coluber obsoletus (=Pantherophis obsoletus) page 140 from specimens collected "...on the Missouri [River] from the vicinity of Isle au Vauce [Cow Island in present day Atchison County] to Council Bluff[s] [Iowa]."
1848 Abert, James W. Notes of Lieutenant J. W. Abert. Appendix Number 6. Pages 386-414 in Notes of a Military Reconnaissance from Fort Leavenworth, in Missouri to San Diego, in California including Parts of Arkansas, Del Norte and Gila Rivers Wendell and Benthuysen, Printers, Senate Executive Document 41, 30th Congress First Session, Washington, D. C. pp.
Lieutenant Abert left Fort Leavenworth on 27 June 1846 en route to San Diego, California.
By 8 July they had reached Turkey Creek in Marion County, where he remarked "The men killed several rattlesnakes near our camp, and one a grey snake, marked with a row of blackish spots along the back; it is said never to exceed two feet in length, and is called the grey rattlesnake."
On 11 July they had reach Cow Creek in Rice County and Abert noted "As our wagons moved along the road, the lizards (Lacerta lineatus) [Aspidoscelis sexlineata] were darting rapidly along the ruts in front of it, anxious to escape being crushed. The common land turtle (Testudo clausa) [Terrepene ornata] were also very abundant."
On 14 July they had reached Pawnee Rock (Barton County) where he wrote, "This morning Laing brought me a very large toad, (Rana musica) [currently a synonym for Anaxyrus terrestris but likely referring to A. woodhousii far exceeding any I ever before have seen."
On 15 July, and still at Pawnee Rock he wrote "To-day we saw several large white cranes with black-tipped wings; (Grus americanus) and Laing killed me some rattlesnakes, (Crotalus horridus) [not local] and several prairie snakes."
On 18 July they were moving along the Arkansas River west of Pawnee Rock and noted "The ruts of the road were full of little lizards, sunning themselves; as we approached they would dart briskly away, manifestly disinclined to play the part of devotees to Juggernaut."
1859 Cope, Edward D. Catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes on the families, genera, and species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 11():332-347
1877 Mozley, Annie E. List of Kansas snakes in the museum of the Kansas State University. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 6():34-35
First attempt to compile a complete list of snakes reported from Kansas. Most specimens were from Douglas and Wallace counties.
Contains obvious identification/locality errors Thamnophis marcianus (Douglas County) and Heterodon simus (Wallace County).
Neroida holbrookii = Nerodia rhombifer.
Use of the name 'Kansas State University' actually refers to The University of Kansas where Annie E. (Mozley)Boddington received her BS @ KU in 1878 (see also Gloyd 1928).
1880 Cragin, Francis W. A preliminary catalogue of Kansas reptiles and batrachians Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 7():112-123
Also listed the Scarlet Snake (Cemophora coccinea) [=Ophibolus doliatus var. coccineus] and Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) [=Spelerpes ruber] from Kansas.
1885 Cragin, Francis W. Recent additions to the list of Kansas reptiles and batrachians, with further notes on species previously reported. Bulletin of the Washburn College Laboratory of Natural History 1(3):100-103
1885 Cragin, Francis W. Second contribution to the herpetology of Kansas, with observations on the Kansas fauna. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 9():136-140
1895 Stejneger, Leonhard. The poisonous snakes of North America. Annual Report of the United States National Museum 1893(2):337-487
1901 Brown, Arthur Erwin. A review of the genera and species of American snakes, north of Mexico. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 53(1):10-110
1903 Branson, Edwin B. Snakes of Kansas Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 41pp.
Describes all snake species reported from Kansas, considering doubtful those species that the author has not encountered himself. This list contains twenty-nine valid species. Collections examined included State University (KU), State House, Washburn College (WU), Ottawa University, State Normal School (ESU), State Agricultural College (KSU), and several high schools in Kansas. Examined the material available to Mozley (1878) and determined that of the thirty-three species listed, only twenty-three species were valid currently. And that Cragin's (1880) list of thirty-two species included eight specimens on the authority of Mozley that this author could not verify in any collection.
1904 Branson, Edwin B. Snakes of Kansas. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 2(13):353-430
1907 Ditmars, Raymond L. The Reptile Book; A comprehensive, Popularised Work on the Structure and Habits of the Turtles, Tortoises, Crocodilians, Lizards and Snakes which Inhabit the United States and Northern Mexico. Doubleday, Pae, and Company, New York. 472pp.
Several references to Kansas in the distribution of specific species accounts.
1911 Hurter, Julius. Herpetology of Missouri. Transactions of the Academy of Science St. Louis 20(5):59-274
1912 Tucker, Henry. A review of the dangerously poisonous snakes of the United States. Therapeutic Gazette 36(5):313-323
1922 Loding, H. P. A preliminary catalogue of Alabama amphibians and reptiles. Geological Survey of Alabama, Museum Paper (5):59
1929 Taylor, Edward H. A revised checklist of the snakes of Kansas. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 19(5):53-62
1931 Haltom, William L. Alabama reptiles. Alabama Museum of Natural History Museum Paper (11):1-145
1931 Smith, Hobart M. Additions to the herpetological fauna of Riley County, Kansas. Copeia 1931(3):143
Three specimens of Tantilla nigriceps, one Opheodrys vernalis, and one Sistrurus catenatus are reported from Riley County, Kansas for the first time. The Opheodrys vernalis was cataloged into the collection as Coluber constrictor.
1933 Stejneger, Leonhard and Thomas Barbour. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 3rd Edition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. pp.
Reference to Kansas is the listed range of several species.
1933 Brumwell, Malcolm J. Distributional records of the reptilia and amphibians of Kansas. Privately printed, . 22pp.
County dot maps of the Kansas herpetofauna. This work has been attributed to have been written around 1933, but that may be in error.
1933 Burt, Charles E. Some distributional and ecological records of Kansas reptiles. Transactions of the Academy of Science St. Louis 26():186-208
1935 Burt, Charles E. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16(3):311-366
1935 Burt, Charles E. and William L. Hoyle. Additional records of the reptiles of the central prairie region of the United States Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():193-216
1942 Hudson, G. E. The amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Nebraska Conservation Bulletin 24():1-146
1947 Hall, Henry H. and Hobart M. Smith Selected records of reptiles and amphibians from southeastern Kansas Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 49(4):447-454
Report on certain Kansas specimens housed in the collection at what is now Pittsburg State University. Included are several species of dubious status today, including Cryptobranchus alleganiensis from the Neosho and Spring rivers (the only specimens from those significant drainages ever documented), Ambystoma maculatum from just north of Pittsburg, Crawford County, Heterodon nasicus from Crawford County, Opheodrys vernalis from Crawford County, Sonora episcopa from Crawford County, Agkistrodon piscivorus from Cherokee County, Crotalus atrox from Crawford County, and Crotalus viridis from Crawford County. They report several significant range extensions including Kinosternon flavescens from Turkey Creek in southeast Cherokee County, Graptemys geographica from just north of Pittsburg, Crotaphytus collaris from near Columbus, Cherokee County, Sceloporus consobrinus from just north of Pittsburg, Phrynosoma cornutum from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Heterodon platirhinos from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Haldea striatula from Crawford County, Sistrurus tergeminus from Crawford County, and a 402 lb Macrochelys temminckii in Cherokee County from just east of Chetopa (Labette County). They allude to the potential for Anaxyrus fowleri to occur in southeast Kansas and for native populations of Crotalus atrox in south central Kansas (in part from the disclosure that John R. Breukelman [then of ESU] had obtained three specimens in Woods County Oklahoma, 3/4 of a mile south of the Kansas line). None of the specimens the paper was based on, exist today.
1948 Evans, P. D. and Howard K. Gloyd. The subspecies of the Massasauga, Sistrurus catenatus, in Missouri. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 8():225-232
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
The first modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table and text say 97 on p. 10) and 13 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies.
1950 Smith, Hobart M. and Edward H. Taylor. Type localities of Mexican reptiles and amphibians. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 23 Pt II(8):313-380
1951 Brumwell, Malcolm J. An ecological survey of the Fort Leavenworth Military Reservation American Midland Naturalist 45(1):187-231
Published posthumously. Lieutenant Brumwell died December 14, 1941, as a result of injuries incurred during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. This paper is a condensed version of his thesis for the Master's degree.
1953 Schmidt, Karl P. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 280pp.
Schmidt's first edition of his standardized checklist to North American amphibians and reptiles. Includes several specific references to Kansas in the range descriptions.
1955 Gloyd, Howard K. A review of the Massasaugas, Sistrurus catenatus, of the southwestern United States (Serpentes: Crotalidae). Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 10(6):83-98
1956 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. Second edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (9):1-356
Hobart M. Smith's updated second edition of his first (1950) modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table says 97 on p. 10; text says 98 on p. 10) and 11 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies. The second edition has updated taxonomy, added Plestiodon laticeps, and removed Eurycea tynerensis.
1956 Diener, Richard A. New records of snakes in southwestern Kansas. The Southwestern Naturalist 1(1):27-29
1956 Loomis, Richard B. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 37():1195-1443
Examined 2,628 Kansas reptiles of 48 species consisting of 27 turtles of 4 species, 1,736 lizards of 12 species and 892 snakes of 32 species for chiggers. Eleven species of chiggers were recovered from reptiles.
For amphibians, 1188 individuals of 21 species were examined. Five species of chigger mite were recovered from amphibians.
1956 Woodburne, Michael O. Notes on the snake Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus in southwestern Kansas and northwestern Oklahoma. Copeia 1956(2):125-126
1958 Smith, Ronald E. Natural history of the Prairie Dog in Kansas. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publications (16):1-36
1959 Prophet, Carl W. An outline for conservation teaching in Kansas. Kansas School Naturalist 5(3):16
1962 Gish, Charles D. The Herpetofauna of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 34pp.
1973 Knight, James L., Eugene D. Fleharty, and Jerry D. Johnson. Noteworthy records of distribution and habits of some Kansas herptiles. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 75(3):273-275
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
Joseph T. Collins first Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Smith 1956)>
1974 Karns, Daryl, Ray E. Ashton, Jr., and Thomas Swearingen. Illustrated Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas: An Identification Manual. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History Public Education Series(2):viii + 18
1975 Rundquist, Eric M. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kingman County, Kansas. Privately Printed, Lawrence, Kansas. 3pp.
Short accounts for twenty-nine recognized amphibians and reptiles from Kingman County, Kansas. With habitat descriptions and for some species, estimates of population density.
1976 Rundquist, Eric M. Field checklist (of) amphibians and reptiles of Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Capron, Marty and Jan Perry. A July weekend in Great Bend. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (14):1-2
1978 Curl, Richard L. Final Environmental Statement: Milford Lake Kansas operation and maintenance. US Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District. 158pp.
Notable mentions: Spotted Salamander, Smooth Green Snake
1978 Reinert, H. K. The Ecology and Morphological Variation of the Massasauga Rattlesnake, Sistrurus catenatus. Thesis. Pennsylvania State University, Clarion, Pennsylvania. 173pp.
1978 Capron, Marty. Four county collecting raid: A south central Kansas herping saga. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (26):9-12
1978 Collins, Joseph T. and Janalee P. Caldwell. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1977. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 6():70-88
1978 Harris, Herbert S. and Robert S. Simmons. A preliminary account of the rattlesnakes with descriptions of four new subspecies. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 14():105-211
1979 Gray, Peter and Eddie Stegall. A field trip to the Red Hills. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (29):6-8
1980 Clarke, Robert F. Herptiles and fishes of the western Arkansas River in Kansas. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 55pp.
A summary of known information on the amphibian, reptile, and fish faunas of the Arkansas River above Great Bend. The report details associated field activities for procuring fish, however no new surveys for amphibians and reptiles were undertaken. Information on herps from Finney County was provided by Michael Rush (FHSU) and thus made available before the publication of his thesis (Rush, 1981). The western Arkansas River drainage had experienced little attention by herpetologists before this study, and the species accounts reflect that paucity of data. Additionally, the report omits several older records (e.g. for Anaxyrus debilisThamnophis cyrtopsis, and Lampropeltis calligaster) from the westernmost reaches of the Arkansas River drainage in Kansas.
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
Joseph T. Collins second Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1974)>
1983 Miller, Larry L. Bourbon County field trip well attended and successful. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (54):6-7
1983 Minton, Sherman A., Jr.. Sistrurus catenatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (332):1-2
1983 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1982 . Technical Publication of the State Biological Survey of Kansas 13():9-21
1984 Brown, Kenneth L. Pomona: A plains village variant in eastern Kansas and western Missouri. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 519pp.
1984 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1983. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (56):15-26
Invalidated the specimens of Thamnophis sirtalis from Hamilton County (reidentified as T. cyrtopsis; KU 2088) and Wallace County mapped in Collins, 1982.
1984 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1984. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (58):14-20
1985 Capron, Marty. A western diamondback rattlesnake released in Sumner County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (59):5-6
Report on a specimen of Crotalus atrox discovered near Belle Plain, Sumner County, Kansas.
1985 Capron, Marty. Thunder snakes, blow vipers, and others. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (60):9-10
1986 Capron, Marty. In praise of the tiger. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (63):12-13
1986 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1985. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (63):4
1986 Miller, Larry L. KHS 1986 spring field trip to Cheyenne Bottoms. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (64):4-5
1987 Simmons, John E. September 1987 field trip report. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (69):42894
1988 Miller, Larry L. Harper County KHS field trip well attended. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (72):5-6
1989 Collins, Joseph T. First Kansas herp counts held in 1989. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (77):11-
1990 Lardie, Richard L. Kansas threatened species and protection of the Gypsum Hills habitat. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (80):14-15
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Results of second Kansas herp count held during April-May 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):10-12
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Maximum size records for Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):13-17
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (83):7-13
1992 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (87):12-17
1992 Taggart, Travis W. KHS field trips. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (91):3
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
Joseph T. Collins third Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1982)>
1994 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1993. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):15-19
1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):5-14
See, 1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Additions and corrections [to the results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994]. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):4.
1995 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the seventh annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (101):11-17
1996 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (103):13-15
1996 Miller, Larry L. Results of the KHS 1995 fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (103):3
1996 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eighth annual KHS herp counts Held 1 April-31 May 1996. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (104):6-17
1996 Rakestraw, J. Spring herp counts: A Kansas tradition. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (March-April):75-80
1996 Dundee, Harold A. Some reallocations of type localities of reptiles and amphibians described from the Major Stephen H. Long Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, with comments on some of the statements made in the account written by Edwin James.  Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany 30():75–89
1997 Hobert, J. P. The Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) in Colorado. Thesis. University of Northern Colorado, Greeley. 155pp.
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the ninth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1997. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (108):12-17
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1998 Gamble, Jerre Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hartford, Kansas. 91pp.
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the tenth annual KHS herp counts for 1998, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (112):11-18
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. Racer reproduction and diet observation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (113):15
1998 Schmidt, Curtis J. Herpetological observations at Cheyenne Bottoms, Barton County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (113):15
1998 Collins, Joseph T. Results of the KHS silver anniversary fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (114):6-
1999 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas Herpetological Society herp counts: A 10 year summary and evaluation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (115):42962
2000 Taggart, Travis W. KHS spring field trip sets record for attendance. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (120):5-5
2000 Taggart, Travis W. Biogeographic analysis of the reptiles (Squamata) in Ellis County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (121):7-16
2000 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eleventh and twelfth annual KHS herpetofaunal counts for 1999-2000, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (122):11-16
2001 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the thirteenth annual KHS herp counts for 2001, held 1 April-30 June. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):13-16
2002 Kingsbury, Bruce and Joanna Gibson. Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Midwest. Publication of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, Address not given. 152pp.
2002 Ellis, Mark R. Fall 2002 KHS field trip to Washington County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (2):4-5
2002 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2002 fall field Trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):11-13
To Washington County, Kansas (also includes ancillary counts from Clay and Marshall counties).
2003 Suleiman, G. Fort Riley herpetofaunal count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):11-12
2003 Platt, Dwight R. Lizards and snakes (Order Squamata) of Harvey County, Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):13-20
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2003 KHS spring field trip to Wilson County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):2-5
2003 Washburne, Jeremy. Geographic distribution: Sistrurus catenatus. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):8
2003 Collins, Joseph T. Douglas County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):8
2004 Delisle, Jennifer M. and William H. Busby Biological inventory for vertebrates at Fort Larned National Historic Site of the southern plains network. Natural Heritage Inventory, Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 61pp.
2004 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians, turtles, and reptiles in Kansas for 2003. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (9):8-11
2004 Hobert, J. P., C. E. Montgomery, and S. P. Mackessy. Natural history of the massasauga, Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii, in southeastern Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist 49(3):321-326
2006 Patten, Tracy J. Spatial ecology and habitat use of the Western Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus tergeminus) in southeastern Nebraska. Thesis. University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska. 110pp.
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2006 Bender, David J. Graduate research on the Massasauga in Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (18):8-9
2008 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2008 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (25):2-3
2008 Nolting, Ray Snake hunter finds rattlesnake in Neosho Parsons Sun 1 May 2008():1,8
Article on the venomous snakes of Neosho County, Kansas encountered during the Kansas Herpetological Society 2008 Spring field trip. Specifically, about a Western Massasauga (FHSM 13846) collected near Galesburg.
2009 Bender, David J. Population Characteristics and Diet of Western Massasauga in Central Kansas with Inference from Stomach Contents and Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 122pp.
2009 Murrow, Daniel G. KHS 2009 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (29):42769
2009 Patten, Tracy J., James D. Fawcett and Daniel D. Fogell. Natural history of the Western Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus) in Nebraska. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (30):13-20
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
Joseph T. Collins fourth Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1993)>
2010 Busby, William H., W. Dean Kettle, Jennifer M. Deslisle, R. Moranz, S. Roels, and V. B. Salisbury. Monitoring and Habitat Management for Species of Greatest Conservation Need: Anderson County Prairie Preserve. Open-file Report No. 164. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 99pp.
2010 Murrow, Daniel G. Kansas Herpetological Society spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (33):2-3
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 spring field trip to beheld in Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (37):5-7
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS Spring Field Trip to Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (38):2-4
2011 Gibbs, H. Lisle, Michael Murphy, and James E. Chiucchi. Genetic identity of endangered Massasauga rattlesnakes (Sistrurus sp.) in Missouri. Conservation Genetics 12(2):433-439
2011 Kubatko, Laura S., H. Lisle Gibbs, and Erik W. Bloomquist. Inferring species-level phylogenies and taxonomic distinctiveness using multilocus data in Sistrurus rattlesnakes. Systematic Biology 60(4):393-409
2012 Rohweder, Megan R. Spatial conservation prioritization of Kansas for terrestrial vertebrates. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 151pp.
2012 Crother, Brian I., Jay M. Savage, and Andrew T. Holycross. Comment on the proposed conservation of Crotalinus catenatus Rafinesque, 1818 (currently Sistrurus catenatus) and Crotalus tergeminus (currently Sistrurus tergeminus; Reptilia, Serpentes) by designation of neotypes for both species. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 69(1):1-2
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Spring Field Trip to Bourbon County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):3
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Summer Field Trip to Coldwater Lake, Comanche County. Collinsorum 2(3/4):5
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Fall Field Trip to Butler County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):6
2013 Mardis, Dexter and Kevin Scott. 2013 Kansas Herpetofaunal Counts. Collinsorum 2(3/4):7
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS Spring Field Trip to Barber County Collinsorum 3(2-4):11
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS Fall Field Trip to Woodson County. Collinsorum 3(2-4):12
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Recent scientific and standard English name changes effecting the Kansas herpetofauna. Collinsorum 3(2-4):9-10
2015 Brown, Kasandra A. Occupancy Modeling Of Herpetofauna And Grassland Nesting Birds At Quivira National Wildlife Refuge. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 72pp.
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Spring Field Trip to the Greenhorn Limestone of Russell County. Collinsorum 4(3):2
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Summer Field Trip In The Harvey County Sandhills. Collinsorum 4(3):3
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Fall Field Trip Held In Washington County. Collinsorum 4(3):4
2015 McCluskey, Eric M. and David J. Bender. Genetic structure of Western Massasauga rattlesnakes (Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus). Journal of Herpetology 49(3):343-348
2015 Dloogatch , Michael A. (Editor) Herpetology 2015 Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 50(12):233
Note on the published research of McCluskey and Bender (2015. Journal of Herpetology 49(3): 343-348)
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
2016 Sovic, M. G., A. C. Fries, and H. Lisle Gibbs. Origin of a cryptic lineage in a threatened reptile through isolation and historical hybridization. Heredity (117):358-366
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS ‘Fall’ field trip to Barber County. Collinsorum 5(2-3):6-7
2017 Mardis, Dexter R. Results from three Herpetofaunal tallies at Wichita State University’s Youngmeyer Ranch in Northwestern Elk County. Collinsorum 6(1):8-10
2017 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2017 KHS Spring Field Trip to Elk County, Kansas. Collinsorum 6(2-3):6-8
2018 Mead, Joshua Spatial Ecology of the Western Massasauga (Sistrurus tergeminus) in a Large Interior Wetland. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 69pp.
2020 Daniel, Richard E. and Brian S. Edmond. Atlas of Missouri Amphibians and Reptiles for 2019. Privately printed, Columbia, Missouri. 86pp.
2020 Riedle, J. Daren. Revisiting Kansas Herpetological Society field trip and Herp Count data: Distributional patterns and trend data of Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Collinsorum 9(1):7-16
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Comanche County: KHS-2020-15. Collinsorum 9(3):13-14
2021 Riedle, J. Daren, Tamera D. Riedle, Zachary Riedle, and Greya Riedle. Herp Count: Stafford County: KHS-2020-34. Collinsorum 9(3):16
2021 Holding, Matthew L., Jason L. Strickland, Rhett M. Rautsaw, Erich P. Hofmann, Andrew J. Mason, Michael P. Hogan, Gunnar S. Nystrom, Schyler A. Ellsworth, Timothy J. Colston, Miguel Borja, Gamaliel Castaneda-Gaytan, Christoph I. Grunwald , Jason M. Jones, Luciana A. Freitas-de-Sousa, Vincent Louis Viala, Mark J. Margres, Erika Hingst-Zaher, Inacio L. M. Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Ana M. Moura-da-Silvaf, Felipe G. Grazziotin, H. Lisle Gibbs, Darin R. Rokyta, and Christopher L. Parkinson. Phylogenetically diverse diets favor more complex venoms in North American pitvipers. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of the United States of America. 118(17):10
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