An sub-adult Prairie Rattlesnake from Comanche County. © Maci Loughrea.
An adult Prairie Rattlesnake from Stanton County. © Travis W. Taggart.
An adult from just south of Monument Rocks, Gove County. Image © Travis W. Taggart.
An adult Prairie Rattlesnake from Comanche County. © Maci Loughrea.
REPTILIA (Reptiles) SERPENTES (Snakes) CROTALIDAE (Pit Vipers)

PRAIRIE RATTLESNAKE
Crotalus viridis (Rafinesque 1818)
krō-tă-ləs — vĭr-ə-dĭs


Conservation Status:

State: None

Federal: None
NatureServe State: S5 - Secure
NatureServe National: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Global: G5 - Secure
CITES: None
Diagnosis:
DANGEROUSLY VENOMOUS (a threat to life or limb): Pit on each side of the head between and slightly below the eye and nostril; large rattle on the tail; small scales covering most of top of the head with one large scale over each eye; a pattern of 30–55 light green to brown blotches on the back; dark bands on the tail. Head, body, and tail are greenish gray to light brown; tail bands similar in color to body blotches. Belly grayish, yellowish, or cream. Young look like miniature adults. Males have longer tails than females.
Adults normally grow 890- 1, 140 mm (35-45 inches) in total length. The largest specimen from Kansas is a male (FHSM 8564) from Hamilton County with a total length of 1,454 mm (57 1/8 inches, including rattle) collected by Dick Grusing on 28 April 2004; exceeds maximum length throughout the range, as reported in Conant and Collins (1998).

Distribution:
The Prairie Rattlesnake is confined to the western half of the state although it is apparently absent from much of the Arkansas River drainage east of Ford County. A specimen (KU 2327) from "Republic County" (no specific locality) is not mapped due to its imprecise locality and the lack of corroborating specimens from adjacent Nebraska.
Additionally, the specimens from Barton, Ellsworth, Jewell, Mitchell, and Smith counties require corroboration. Larry Miller (pers. comm.) relayed information on a specimen he observed in Ellsworth County near the town of Kanopolis. Burt (1933) reported a specimen he collected 3 miles south of Ellsworth on 1 May 1927. Additionally, there are two ANSP specimens (ANSP 10742-3; Ft. Harker) from Ellsworth County. Further investigations are needed to verify that these individuals weren't introduced specimens.
Mozley (1877) reported a specimen from "Osborn City", presumably Osborne County which is just at the eastern edge of its range. Corroborating specimens are desirable.
Halpin (1983) listed this species as "uncommon" at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in Stafford County, however there are no records from Quivira and no known native populations within 60 miles.
(,   Museum Voucher) (,   Observation) (,   Literature Record) (,   iNat Record), (  Fossil)
Open icons are questionable records; Click on a marker to view details. Export Google Earth (.kml)
  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 969
    Records 
  • 747
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 222
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):
Allen (1); Barber (65); Barton (2); Cheyenne (16); Clark (26); Comanche (4); Decatur (2); Ellis (82); Ellsworth (4); Finney (59); Ford (10); Frego (1); Gove (37); Graham (8); Grant (208); Gray (6); Greeley (1); Hamilton (37); Haskell (4); Hodgeman (20); Jewell (2); Kearney (13); Kearny (1); Kingman (1); Kiowa (9); Lane (4); Lincoln (1); Logan (91); McPherson (1); Meade (38); Mitchell (1); Morton (34); Ness (14); Norton (1); Osborne (1); Phillips (2); Pratt (1); Rawlins (6); Reno (1); Republic (1); Riley (3); Rooks (4); Rush (1); Russell (5); Scott (5); Seward (11); Sheridan (4); Sherman (9); Smith (1); Stanton (21); Stevens (8); Thomas (7); Trego (42); Unknown (20); Wallace (11); Wichita (1);

Fossil History:
Pleistocene fossil specimens are known from Meade and McPherson counties. The McPherson County record is just east of the range of this species as currently defined.
Fossils from the Sandahl Local Fauna of McPherson County (Pleistocene: Illinoian) (Holman 1971; Preston 1979; Holman 1995) are assignable to this taxon.
Fossils from the Mount Scott Local Fauna of Meade County (Pleistocene: Illinoian) (Preston 1979, Holman 1987; Holman 1995) are assignable to this genus or Sistrurus.
Fossils from the Cragin Quarry Local Fauna of Meade County (Pleistocene: Sangamonian) (Hay 1917;  Etheridge 1958; Etheridge 1960, Tihen 1960; Tihen 1962; Brattstrom 1967; Preston 1979; Holman 1995) are assignable to this taxon.

Natural History:
A readily observed species where it occurs. It is most commonly associated with rocky canyons and open prairies, with an abundance of small mammal burrows. Basks on south-facing hillsides with large rocks, or just outside of rodent burrows, in the early spring.
Males Prairie Rattlesnake will range up to 15 miles from the den during the summer and then typically returns to the same den in the fall. Females (especially when gravid) are much more sessile and seldom move more than two hundred yards from their burrow during the summer. They become nocturnal during hot summer days.
Females produce 5-18 young per litter, born in the late summer or early fall.
Prairie Rattlesnakes eat lizards, rats, mice, and pocket gophers.

Occurrence Activity:
Remarks:
First reported in Kansas by Hallowell (1857). Burt (1933) referenced a specimen in the Kansas State College Museum (no longer exists) collected in July of 1885 and another collected in August 1903. The Museum of Comparative Zoology has two specimens (MCZ 2455, 4349) that were collected at "Ft. Hays, Kansas" by James A. Allen and cataloged with other material collected around 1865 to 1870, but they have no collection date themselves. Finally, USNM 292 lists "Republican Fork" and Kansas as the locality. The earliest existing specimen is from 1904 (KU 1617) collect at Wild Horse Creek in Graham County on 7 July 1904.
Relying primarily on anecdotal information in Klauber (1956), Fitch (1984) reported a 'drastic' population decline over the past 150 years and further commented that the decrease was accelerating and the species legitimately faced extinction in the state. However, in the same report he discusses the 70 specimens he observed in Morton County in 1984, and reports of 'Snake Hunters' catching and killing 150 in a day and 600 in a season.
Taggart (2006) found the Prairie Rattlesnake to be one of the most commonly encountered snakes in the western half of Kansas. It trails only the Gopher Snake in the total number of observations within its range.
Over time, local populations have certainly experienced fluctuations in the number of individuals and even the distribution of age classes. And much of their former habitat has been converted to agriculture. However, at this point there is no evidence that the Prairie Rattlesnake has experienced a decline in numbers over the past 50, and based on the comments by Fitch (1984), population numbers may actually be increasing.
This species may be commercially harvested in Kansas and has been as recently as 1999, (Fitch, 1995, 1998; Schmidt, 2002; Schmidt and Stark, 2002), in conjunction with an organized Wallace County round-up that began in 1991. The typical harvest of Prairie Rattlesnakes during the round-ups was 300-400 specimens per year. This harvest is small with respect to considerable mortality this species experiences annually on Kansas highways alone. However, it is unknown what effects the take has on local populations that are repeatedly harvested each year.
Demographic data is needed that would allow us to model these effects, and more effectively manage the harvest. Schmidt and Stark (2002) provide such information for populations in Logan County; however those data are also needed for other populations in the state, specifically, those that den communally.
Burt (1935) reported a large specimen that was secured from a pasture three miles west of Syracuse, Hamilton County, Kansas, on 27 May 1934.

Bibliography:
1818 Rafinesque, Constantine S. Further account of discoveries in natural history, in the western states. The American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review 4():39-42
Contains the original description of Sirena maculosa (=Necturus maculosus) page 41 and Crotalinus viridis (=Crotalus viridis) page 41.
1857 Hallowell, Edward. Notice of a collection of reptiles from Kansas and Nebraska presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences, by Doctor Hammond, U. S. A. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 8():238-253
Contains reference to twenty-four species collected from 'Kansas', and includes the original description of Microps lineatus (=Tropidoclonion lineatum) from Kansas on page 241.
1859 Cope, Edward D. Catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes on the families, genera, and species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 11():332-347
1859 Hammond, William A and S. Weir Mitchell. Experimental researches relative to Corroval and Vao - Two new varieties of Woorara, the South American arrow poison. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 37(75):2-60
Includes reports of experiments relating the unsuccessful treatment of venomous snake bites by the Crotalus confluentus (= Crotalus viridis). The first author was a US Army Surgeon (and regional snake expert) stationed at Fort Riley, Kansas in the 1850s.
1866 Cope, Edward D. On the reptilia and batrachia of the Sonoran province of the neartic region. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 18():300-314
1867 Copley, Josiah. Kansas and the Country Beyond on the line of the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division, from the Missouri to the Pacific Ocean. Partly from Personal Observation, and Partly from Information Drawn from Authentic Sources. Written in a Series of Letters of the Pittsburgh Gazette. With a Map. J. B. Lippincott & Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 89pp.
Reference to 'rattlesnake' associations on page 25 and relative abundance on page 26.
1872 Brous, H. A. Habits of the prairie dogs. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 5():10-12
1877 Mozley, Annie E. List of Kansas snakes in the museum of the Kansas State University. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 6():34-35
First attempt to compile a complete list of snakes reported from Kansas. Most specimens were from Douglas and Wallace counties.
Contains obvious identification/locality errors Thamnophis marcianus (Douglas County) and Heterodon simus (Wallace County).
Neroida holbrookii = Nerodia rhombifer.
Use of the name 'Kansas State University' actually refers to The University of Kansas where Annie E. (Mozley)Boddington received her BS @ KU in 1878 (see also Gloyd 1928).
1877 Savage, J. On the bite of the rattlesnake . Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 6():36-38
1878 Williston, Samuel W. The prairie dog, owl and rattlesnake. The American Naturalist 12(4):203-208
1880 Cragin, Francis W. A preliminary catalogue of Kansas reptiles and batrachians Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 7():112-123
Also listed the Scarlet Snake (Cemophora coccinea) [=Ophibolus doliatus var. coccineus] and Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) [=Spelerpes ruber] from Kansas.
1882 Brons, H. A. Notes on the habits of some western snakes. The American Naturalist 16(7):564-567
1883 Garman, Samuel. The reptiles and batrachians of North America.  Kentucky Geological Survey. Yeoman Press., Frankfort, Kentucky. 185pp.
1883 Garman, Samuel. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Memiors of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 8(3):xxxi + 1-185
1887 Cope, Edward D. Origin of the Fittest: Essays on Evolution. D. Appleton and Company, New York, New York.. 467pp.
Mentions the Prairie Rattlesnake and Western Hog-nosed Snake from the plains of Kansas (p. 212), remarking about how similarly patterned they are.
1895 Stejneger, Leonhard. The poisonous snakes of North America. Annual Report of the United States National Museum 1893(2):337-487
1896 MacDonald, John Educational Notes The Agora 5():294-298
Contains a section titled "Snow and the Snake" which briefly chronicles the bite of Francis Snow (professor of zoology at KU) by a Prairie Rattlesnake in his home in Lawrence. Dr. Snow had been bitten by a Prairie Rattlesnake previously in Gove, detailed by Savage (1877) and Hyder (1953).
1903 Branson, Edwin B. Snakes of Kansas Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 41pp.
Describes all snake species reported from Kansas, considering doubtful those species that the author has not encountered himself. This list contains twenty-nine valid species. Collections examined included State University (KU), State House, Washburn College (WU), Ottawa University, State Normal School (ESU), State Agricultural College (KSU), and several high schools in Kansas. Examined the material available to Mozley (1878) and determined that of the thirty-three species listed, only twenty-three species were valid currently. And that Cragin's (1880) list of thirty-two species included eight specimens on the authority of Mozley that this author could not verify in any collection.
1904 Branson, Edwin B. Snakes of Kansas. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 2(13):353-430
1908 Dyche, Lewis L. The poison glands of a rattlesnake during the period of hibernation. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 22():312-313
1909 Dyche, Lewis L. Dr. Snow as a collector and his collections. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 22():39-45
1916 Kellogg, Remington. The mammals of Kansas with notes on their distribution, habits, life histories and economic importance. Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 331pp.
Lists the Black-tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a prey item of the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis). Also, list salamanders, frogs, turtles, snakes, and lizards as the general prey items of many different mammals.
1917 Wooster, Lyman D. Nature Study Bulletin Kansas State Printing Plant, Topeka, Kansas.. 63pp.
1927 Burt, Charles E. An annotated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Riley County, Kansas. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (189):12
Accounts on forty species known from the vicinity of Manhattan, Riley County, Kansas. There have been several scientific names changes since publication, which is understandable... however, some usages cannot be explained by subsequent taxonomic reappraisals(e.g.  Gastrophryne carolinensis for Gastrophryne olivacea). The writer lists Eumeces (=Plestiodon) obsoletus and E. guttulatus yet correctly reasoning that the latter is the young of the former. Within the account of Tantilla gracilis (a common form) the writer mentions that T. nigriceps was reported from Riley County by Branson (1904) but that the specimens at Kansas State were absent at the time of publication. The Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) was first reported from Riley County by Branson (1904) and is reported by the writer based on a specimen in the museum at Kansas State University by Professor E. A. Popenoe. The Prairie Rattlesnake is not currently native to Riley County, and closest reliable localities are 150 to the west.
1929 Taylor, Edward H. A revised checklist of the snakes of Kansas. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 19(5):53-62
1929 Taylor, Edward H. List of reptiles and batrachians of Morton County, Kansas, reporting species new to the state fauna. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 19(6):63-65
Annotated listing of 25 species discovered in southwest Morton County just prior to the Dust Bowl that wreaked havoc on the region and the subsequent creation of the Cimarron National Grassland. Of special note are Heterodon platirhinos, Thamnophis marcianus, and Anaxyrus debilis (all of which have not been found in the area since).
1933 Brumwell, Malcolm J. Distributional records of the reptilia and amphibians of Kansas. Privately printed, . 22pp.
County dot maps of the Kansas herpetofauna. This work has been attributed to have been written around 1933, but that may be in error.
1933 Burt, Charles E. Some distributional and ecological records of Kansas reptiles. Transactions of the Academy of Science St. Louis 26():186-208
1933 Burt, Charles E. Some distributional and ecological records of Kansas reptiles. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 36():186-208
1934 Brennan, Lawrence A. A check list of the amphibians and reptiles of Ellis County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():189-191
1934 Burt, Charles E. and W. L. Hoyle. Additional records of the reptiles of the central prairie region of the United States. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():193-216
1935 Brennan, Lawrence A. Notes on the Distribution of Amphibia and Reptilia of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 114pp.
1935 Burt, Charles E. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16(3):311-366
1935 Burt, Charles E. and William L. Hoyle. Additional records of the reptiles of the central prairie region of the United States Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():193-216
1936 Hurd, Myron Alec. The reptiles of Cherokee County, Kansas. Thesis. Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, Kansas. 103pp.
Under the supervision of thesis adviser Harry H. Hall. Report on 38 species (8 turtles, 7 lizards, and 23 snakes)... most unsubstantiated. Interesting inclusion are Crotalus horridus, Crotalus viridis, Kinosternon subrubrum, Opheodrys vernalis, and Phrynosoma cornutum.
1937 Brennan, Lawrence A. A study of the habitat of reptiles and amphibians of Ellis County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 40():341-347
1938 Bond, Glenn Carl Serological studies of the Reptilia. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 110pp.
1941 Branson, F. and C. Deyoe. A study of snakes and lizards of Ellis County. Unpublished data, Fort Hays State University. pp.
Have been unable to locate a copy. 
Cited in Gish (1961. The Herpetofauna of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 34pp.) among the species accounts under "other specimens reported". TWT 11 February 2020.
1944 Marr, John C. Notes on amphibians and reptiles from the central United States. American Midland Naturalist 32(2):478-490
1947 Hall, Henry H. and Hobart M. Smith. Selected records of reptiles and amphibians from southeastern Kansas Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 49(4):447-454
Report on certain Kansas specimens housed in the collection at what is now Pittsburg State University. Included are several species of dubious status today, including Cryptobranchus alleganiensis from the Neosho and Spring rivers (the only specimens from those significant drainages ever documented), Ambystoma maculatum from just north of Pittsburg, Crawford County, Heterodon nasicus from Crawford County, Opheodrys vernalis from Crawford County, Sonora episcopa from Crawford County, Agkistrodon piscivorus from Cherokee County, Crotalus atrox from Crawford County, and Crotalus viridis from Crawford County. They report several significant range extensions including Kinosternon flavescens from Turkey Creek in southeast Cherokee County, Graptemys geographica from just north of Pittsburg, Crotaphytus collaris from near Columbus, Cherokee County, Sceloporus consobrinus from just north of Pittsburg, Phrynosoma cornutum from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Heterodon platirhinos from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Haldea striatula from Crawford County, Sistrurus tergeminus from Crawford County, and a 402 lb Macrochelys temminckii in Cherokee County from just east of Chetopa (Labette County). They allude to the potential for Anaxyrus fowleri to occur in southeast Kansas and for native populations of Crotalus atrox in south central Kansas (in part from the disclosure that John R. Breukelman [then of ESU] had obtained three specimens in Woods County Oklahoma, 3/4 of a mile south of the Kansas line). None of the specimens the paper was based on, exist today.
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
The first modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table and text say 97 on p. 10) and 13 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies.
1953 Schmidt, Karl P. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 280pp.
Schmidt's first edition of his standardized checklist to North American amphibians and reptiles. Includes several specific references to Kansas in the range descriptions.
1953 Hyder, Clyde K. Snow of Kansas University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas. 296pp.
Mentions collecting snakes and turtles on the KU grounds in 1875. Mentions Annie Mozley (see Mozley, 1877). Discusses the first natural history collection at KU (second floor of Fraser Hall) (also see McClung, 1908); Details Professor Snow's bite by a Prairie Rattlesnake in Gove County (see also Savage, 1877).
1956 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. Second edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (9):1-356
Hobart M. Smith's updated second edition of his first (1950) modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table says 97 on p. 10; text says 98 on p. 10) and 11 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies. The second edition has updated taxonomy, added Plestiodon laticeps, and removed Eurycea tynerensis.
1956 Loomis, Richard B. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 37():1195-1443
Examined 2,628 Kansas reptiles of 48 species consisting of 27 turtles of 4 species, 1,736 lizards of 12 species and 892 snakes of 32 species for chiggers. Eleven species of chiggers were recovered from reptiles.
For amphibians, 1188 individuals of 21 species were examined. Five species of chigger mite were recovered from amphibians.
1959 Prophet, Carl W. An outline for conservation teaching in Kansas. Kansas School Naturalist 5(3):16
1962 Gish, Charles D. The Herpetofauna of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 34pp.
1967 Gier, Herschel T. Vertebrates of the Flint Hills. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 70(1):51-59
1967 Brattstrom, Bayard H. A succession of Pliocene and Pleistocene snake fauna from the High Plains of the United States. Copeia 1967(1):188-202
An examination (or in many cases, a re-examination) of 11,000 accumulated skeletal elements from fossil deposits collected at various sites and ranging in age from Lower Pliocene to the Recent.
1969 Tyler, Jack D. Distribution and vertebrate associates of the black-tailed prairie dog in Oklahoma. Dissertation. University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma. 85pp.
1971 Holman, J. Alan. Herpetofauna of the sandahl local fauna (Pleistocene: Illinoian) of Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 23(22):349-355
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
Joseph T. Collins first Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Smith 1956)>
1974 Perry, Janice. KHS members take trip to southwest Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (3):2-3
Account of a search for Crotalus atrox and other species discovered in Comanche County.
1974 Karns, Daryl, Ray E. Ashton, Jr., and Thomas Swearingen. Illustrated Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas: An Identification Manual. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History Public Education Series(2):viii + 18
1976 Rundquist, Eric M. Field checklist (of) amphibians and reptiles of Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Rickart, Eric A. A new horned lizard (Phrynosoma adinognathus) from the early Pleistocene of Meade County, Kansas, with comments on the herpetofauna of the Borchers locality. Herpetologica 32(1):64-67
Contains the original description of Phrynosoma adinognathus.
1977 Knight, James L. and Joseph T. Collins. The amphibians and reptiles of Cheyenne County, Kansas, Report Number 15. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 19pp.
1978 Capron, Marty. Four county collecting raid: A south central Kansas herping saga. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (26):9-12
1978 Collins, Joseph T. and Janalee P. Caldwell. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1977. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 6():70-88
1978 Harris, Herbert S. and Robert S. Simmons. A preliminary account of the rattlesnakes with descriptions of four new subspecies. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 14():105-211
1979 Martin, Larry D. Survey of fossil vertebrates from east-central Kansas: Kansas River bank stabilization study. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District. 55pp.
1979 Gray, Peter and Eddie Stegall. A field trip to the Red Hills. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (29):6-8
1980 Clarke, Robert F. Herptiles and fishes of the western Arkansas River in Kansas. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 55pp.
A summary of known information on the amphibian, reptile, and fish faunas of the Arkansas River above Great Bend. The report details associated field activities for procuring fish, however no new surveys for amphibians and reptiles were undertaken. Information on herps from Finney County was provided by Michael Rush (FHSU) and thus made available before the publication of his thesis (Rush, 1981). The western Arkansas River drainage had experienced little attention by herpetologists before this study, and the species accounts reflect that paucity of data. Additionally, the report omits several older records (e.g. for Anaxyrus debilisThamnophis cyrtopsis, and Lampropeltis calligaster) from the westernmost reaches of the Arkansas River drainage in Kansas.
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
Joseph T. Collins second Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1974)>
1983 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1982 . Technical Publication of the State Biological Survey of Kansas 13():9-21
1983 Halpin, Zuleyma T. Naturally occurring encounters between Blacktailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and snakes. American Midland Naturalist 109(1):50-54
Details encounters occurring on a 1.7-ha prairie dog town located at the Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in south central Kansas.
1984 Von Achen, Pennie. H. and John L. Rakestraw. The role of chemoreception in the prey selection of neonate reptiles. Pages 163-172 in Vertebrate Ecology and Systematics— A Tribute to Henry S Fitch. Special Publication Number 10. The University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Lawrence. pp.
1984 Schwarting, Nancy. KHS field trip, May 1984. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (57):3-4
1985 Capron, Marty. A western diamondback rattlesnake released in Sumner County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (59):5-6
Report on a specimen of Crotalus atrox discovered near Belle Plain, Sumner County, Kansas.
1985 Capron, Marty. Thunder snakes, blow vipers, and others. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (60):9-10
1985 Fitch, Henry S. Observations on rattle size and demography of Prairie Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) and Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) in Kansas. Occasional Papers of the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History (118):1-11
1986 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1986. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (66):9-16
1988 Nulton, Michael T. and Michael S. Rush. New county records of amphibians and reptiles in Gray County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (74):10-12
1989 Hayward, S. and M. Hayward. Walks and Rambles on the Cimarron National Grassland.  TriState News, Elkhart, Kansas. 16pp.
1989 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1988. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (75):15-18
1989 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1989. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (78):16-21
1990 Lardie, Richard L. Kansas threatened species and protection of the Gypsum Hills habitat. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (80):14-15
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Results of second Kansas herp count held during April-May 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):10-12
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Maximum size records for Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):13-17
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Reptiles and Amphibians of the Cimarron National Grasslands, Morton County, Kansas. U. S. Forest Service, Elkhart, Kansas. 60pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (83):7-13
1991 Collins, Joseph T. Results of third Kansas herp count held during April-May 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (85):9-13
1992 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (87):12-17
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Observations on Kansas amphibians and reptiles Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (88):13-15
1992 Ball, Robert L. High plains serpents: Results of a long-term study in Texas County, Oklahoma and Morton County, Kansas Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (88):16-17
1992 Collins, Joseph T. Results of the fourth Kansas herp count held during April-May 1992. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (89):10-
1992 Edds, David R. Observations of the 1992 Sharon Springs rattlesnake roundup. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (90):11
1992 Reiserer, Randal S. and David L. Reber. Comments on the Wallace County rattlesnake roundup. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (90):12-15
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS annual field trip to Sheridan County State Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (90):3-4
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Crotalus viridis. Geographic distribution. Herpetological Review 23():91
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
Joseph T. Collins third Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1982)>
1993 Edds, David R. Presentation to the Kansas Wildlife and Parks Commission. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (91):13-14
1993 Pisani, George R. and Henry S. Fitch. A survey of Oklahoma's rattlesnake roundups. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (92):7-15
1993 Edds, David R. Rattlesnake commercialization update. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (93):13
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the fifth Kansas herp count held during April-June 1993 . Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (94):7-11
1994 Reber, David L. and Allison Smith-Reber. Kansas Herpetological Society position paper regarding rattlesnake roundups. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (96):9-20
1994 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1993. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):15-19
1995 Fitch, Henry S. The Sharon Springs rattlesnake roundup May 12, 13, 14, 1995. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. 12pp.
1995 Holman, J. Alan. Pleistocene Amphibians and Reptiles. Oxford University Press, New York. 243pp.
1995 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (100):24-47
1995 Bammes, B. E. The Sharon Springs rattlesnake roundup: A report. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (100):31-32
1995 Parmley, Dennis and J. Alan Holman. Hemphillian (Late Miocene) snakes from Nebraska, with comments on Arikareean through Blancan Snakes of midcontinental North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15(1):79-95
1996 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eighth annual KHS herp counts Held 1 April-31 May 1996. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (104):6-17
1996 Riedle, J. Daren. Some Occurrences of the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) in Kansas Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (105):18-19
1996 Rakestraw, J. Spring herp counts: A Kansas tradition. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (March-April):75-80
1996 Reber, David L. and Alison S. Reber. Rattlesnake Roundups in Kansas: A brief history. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 1(1):10-14
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the ninth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1997. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (108):12-17
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1998 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians & Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 131pp.
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. Blind snake reproductive activity. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (111):16-17
1998 Fitch, Henry S. The Sharon Springs roundup and prairie rattlesnake demography. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 101(3-4):101-113
1999 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas Herpetological Society herp counts: A 10 year summary and evaluation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (115):42962
2000 Fitch, Henry S. Population structure and biomass of some common snakes in central North America. Scientific Papers of the Natural History Museum University of Kansas (17):1-7
2000 Schmidt, Curtis J. Observations on reptilian predation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (120):18
2000 Taggart, Travis W. Biogeographic analysis of the reptiles (Squamata) in Ellis County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (121):7-16
2000 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eleventh and twelfth annual KHS herpetofaunal counts for 1999-2000, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (122):11-16
2000 Pook, Catharine E., Wolfgang Wuster, and Roger S. Thorpe. Historical biogeography of the Western Rattlesnake (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalus viridis), inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence information
. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15(2):269-282
2000 Fitzgerald, Lee A. and Charles W. Painter. Rattlesnake commercialization: Long-term trends, issues, and implications for conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(1):235-253
2000 Dloogatch , Michael A. (Editor) Herpetology 2000 Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 35(6):149-152
Note (page 151) on a paper by Fitzgerald and Painter (2000. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(1): 235-253) on the commercialization of rattlesnakes.
2001 Reiserer, Randall S. Evolution of life histories in rattlesnakes. Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, California. 256pp.
2001 Schmidt, Curtis J. The amphibians, turtles, and reptiles of the Smoky Valley Ranch, Logan County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (124):9-11
2001 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS spring field trip west. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):10
2001 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the thirteenth annual KHS herp counts for 2001, held 1 April-30 June. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):13-16
2001 Kretzer, Justin E. and Jack F. Cully, Jr. Effects of Blacktailed Prairie Dogs on reptiles and amphibians in Kansas shortgrass prairie. Southwestern Naturalist 46(2):171-177
2002 Schmidt, Curtis J. and William J. Stark. An assessment of the harvest of Prairie Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) during the Sharon Springs rattlesnake roundups in 2000 and 2001 and an investigation of unexploited populations within the Smoky Valley Ranch. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, . 15pp.
2002 Kingsbury, Bruce and Joanna Gibson. Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Midwest. Publication of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, Address not given. 152pp.
2002 Schmidt, Curtis J. and William J. Stark. An assessment of the harvest of Prairie Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) during the Sharon Springs rattlesnake roundups in 2000 and 2001, and an investigation of unexploited populations within the Smoky Valley Ranch, in Logan County, Kansas. ():46
2002 Schmidt, Curtis J. A demographic analysis of the Prairie Rattlesnakes collected for the 2000 and 2001 Sharon Springs, Kansas, rattlesnake roundups. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (1):12-18
2002 Schmidt, Curtis J. Organization and background of the 2000 and 2001 Sharon Springs, Kansas, rattlesnake roundups. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (1):9
2002 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the spring 2002 KHS field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (3):6-7
To the Cimarron National Grassland, in Morton and Stevens counties.
2002 Rundquist, Eric M. Natural history of the Night Snake, Hypsiglena torquata, in Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):16-20
2002 Fitch, Henry S. A comparison of growth and rattle string in three species of rattlesnakes. Scientific Papers of the Natural History Museum University of Kansas (24):1-6
2003 Fitch, Henry S. Rattlesnake roundup summary Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 14pp.
2003 Fitch, Henry S. Reproduction in rattlesnakes of the Sharon Springs, Kansas, roundup. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (8):23-24
2004 Schmidt, Curtis J. Natural history and status of the exploited Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in western Kansas and a herpetofaunal inventory of the Smoky Valley Ranch, Logan County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. pp.
2004 Fitch, Henry S. Kansas rattlesnake reports, 1992 to Present Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 60pp.
Compilation of reports and data related to the Sharon Spring Kansas rattlesnake roundups, put together by Henry Fitch.
2004 Delisle, Jennifer M. and William H. Busby. Biological inventory for vertebrates at Fort Larned National Historic Site of the southern plains network. Natural Heritage Inventory, Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 61pp.
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2004 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (9):2
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2004 KHS spring field trip to Logan County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (10):2-7
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2004 fall feld trip . Journal of Kansas Herpetology (12):15-16
2004 Bennett, R. Life history. Crotalus viridis. Prairie Rattlesnake. Behavior. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (12):18
2004 Taggart, Travis W. and Curtis J. Schmidt. Life History. Crotalus viridis. New maximum size for entire range. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (12):18
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Addendum report to biological inventory of the sandsage prairie near Holcomb, Kansas. Sunflower Electric Cooperative, Hays, Kansas. 31pp.
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2007 Taggart, Travis W., Joseph T. Collins, and Curtis J. Schmidt. Estimates of amphibian, reptile, and turtle mortality if Phostoxin is applied to 10,000 acres of prairie dog burrows in Logan County, Kansas. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. 5pp.
2007 Taggart, Travis W. A biological inventory of the Sunflower Electric Site near Holcomb, Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology 23():11-16
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
Joseph T. Collins fourth Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1993)>
2011 Taggart, Travis W. and Daniel Murrow. KHS to conduct summer field trip to western Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (38):5
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 Summer Field Trip to Scott State Park Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):2
2012 Rohweder, Megan R. Spatial conservation prioritization of Kansas for terrestrial vertebrates. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 151pp.
2012 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada: Second Edition, Revised and Updated. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 152pp.
2013 Kauffman, Greg Lee. Stable isotope analysis of a middle woodland population from north central Kansas. Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 110pp.
2013 Goldenberg, Julianne R. Multilocus species delimitation and species tree inference within the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) species complex. Thesis. San Diego State Univeristy, San Diego, California.. 81pp.
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Summer Field Trip to Meade County State Park. Collinsorum 2(3/4):3
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Summer Field Trip to Coldwater Lake, Comanche County. Collinsorum 2(3/4):5
2013 Mardis, Dexter and Kevin Scott. 2013 Kansas Herpetofaunal Counts. Collinsorum 2(3/4):7
2013 Gardiner, Laura E., Christopher M. Somers, Jessica A. Martino, Dennilyn L. Parker, and Ray G. Poulin. Balancing the dumbbell: Summer habitats need protection in addition to winter dens for northern snake communities. The Journal of Wildlife Management 77(5):975-982
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS Spring Field Trip to Barber County Collinsorum 3(2-4):11
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS summer field trip to Morton County and adjacent Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Collinsorum 3(2-4):12
2016 Rothe-Groleau, Colleen S. Natural history and reproductive biology of a population of Prairie Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) from Kansas. Thesis. University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska. 46pp.
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS ‘Fall’ field trip to Barber County. Collinsorum 5(2-3):6-7
2016 Davis, Mark A., Marlis R. Douglas, Michael L. Collyer, Michael E. Douglas. Deconstructing a species-complex: Geometric morphometric and molecular analyses define species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis). PLOS One 11(1):21
2017 Taggart, Travis W. Herp Count: Clark County State Lake. Collinsorum 6(2-3):9
2018 Rothe-Groleau, Colleen, Claudia M. Rauter, and James D. Fawcett. Morphological traits as indicators of sexual dimorphism in Prairie Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis). Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 38():10-18
2019 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada. Third Edition. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 192pp.
2019 Riedle, J. Daren. The truth about snakes. Kansas Wildlife and Parks Magazine July/August():18-21
2020 Riedle, J. Daren. Revisiting Kansas Herpetological Society field trip and Herp Count data: Distributional patterns and trend data of Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Collinsorum 9(1):7-16
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Morton County: KHS-2020-12. Collinsorum 9(3):13
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Stanton County: KHS-2020-10. Collinsorum 9(3):13
2021 Taggart, Megan M. and Travis W. Taggart. Herp Count: Seward County: KHS-2020-27. Collinsorum 9(3):15
2021 Holding, Matthew L., Jason L. Strickland, Rhett M. Rautsaw, Erich P. Hofmann, Andrew J. Mason, Michael P. Hogan, Gunnar S. Nystrom, Schyler A. Ellsworth, Timothy J. Colston, Miguel Borja, Gamaliel Castaneda-Gaytan, Christoph I. Grunwald , Jason M. Jones, Luciana A. Freitas-de-Sousa, Vincent Louis Viala, Mark J. Margres, Erika Hingst-Zaher, Inacio L. M. Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Ana M. Moura-da-Silvaf, Felipe G. Grazziotin, H. Lisle Gibbs, Darin R. Rokyta, and Christopher L. Parkinson. Phylogenetically diverse diets favor more complex venoms in North American pitvipers. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of the United States of America. 118(17):10
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