AMPHIBIA (Amphibians) CAUDATA (Salamanders) PLETHODONTIDAE (Lungless Salamanders)

OKLAHOMA SALAMANDER
Eurycea tynerensis (Cope 1869)
ū-rĭs_ē-ă — tī-nĕr-ĭn-sĭs


Conservation Status:

State: None

Federal: None
NatureServe State: SNA - Not Applicable
NatureServe National: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Global: G5 - Secure
CITES: None

Image © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.

Diagnosis:
This species is paedomorphic (maintains it's larval form (gills, coloration, enlarged tail, etc.; does not transform) in streams containing large chert gravel, but metamorphoses in nearby streams containing poorly sorted, clastic material such as sandstone or siltstone. Deposits of large chert gravel provide loosely associated streambeds, which provide access to subsurface water during dry summer months.
The stream from Schermerhorn Cave to Shoal Creek (the only collection locality in Kansas) is composed of chert gravel, and if a Kansas population still exists, it would be expected to be paedomorphic.
Typically 1 3/4 to 3 1/4 inches (44 to 83 mm) in total length. The record length throughout the range is 4 1/16 inches (102 mm) (Powell et al. 2016).


Distribution:
This species is known in Kansas from four larval specimens collected in 1967, Ireland (1970), three of which are preserved (KU 153033-5). Populations are known to occur within 6 miles to the south and east in Oklahoma and Missouri.
Cope (1889) reported a specimen (Spelerpes multiplicatus) of this species "which was taken in southern Kansas" sent to him by Francis W. Cragin. A catalog number for the specimen was not cited, and Smith (1934) later reported that it was subsequently lost. Dunn (1926) mentions the specimen reported by Cope (1889) but makes no attempt to plot it on his distribution map.
According to Rundquist and Collins (1977), the locality cataloged by Ireland (1970) for E. multiplicata griseogaster (3 mi S Galena) was reported incorrectly due to concern for the preservation of the habitat and species in the state, but a valid collection site [=Schermerhorn Park cave] does exist (P. H. Ireland, pers. comm. ibid.).
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  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 3
    Records 
  • 3
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 0
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):
Cherokee (3);

Natural History:
Inhabits cold, clear streams, especially those from caves. In streams with a gravelly bed, they are often neotenic and spend their entire lives among the interstitial cavities  between the gravel.
Populations that occupy sections of streams that have bed rock bottoms will often transform. Until recently, these transforming populations were confused with the Many-ribbed Salamander (Eurycea multiplicata) which occurs in the Ouachita Mountains.

Occurrence Activity:
White dates indicate there is at least a single recorded occurrence on that date. The darker blue a date is, the greater the relative number of observations for that date.
Remarks:
Originally, reported from Kansas as Eurycea multiplicata. Bonett and Chippindale (2004) restricted Eurycea multiplicata to those populations south of the Arkansas River in Arkansas and Oklahoma. Populations occurring north of the Arkansas River are assignable to E. tynerensis. Additional analyses are pending and include larval samples of all available Eurycea from Kansas. The specific identity of those populations in Kansas (should they actually exist) is likely to change again, but without reversion to E. multiplicata.
Additional survey efforts are needed to adequately determine the status of this species in Kansas.
Layher (2002) suggested that the inclusion of this taxon as a member of the state's fauna was based on the misidentification of the aforementioned larval specimens. In the lack of any published findings to the contrary, the Oklahoma Salamander is retained based on Ireland's (1970) report.

Bibliography:
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1889 Cope, Edward D The batrachia of North America. Bulletin of the United States National Museum (34):1-525
1) 14 specimens of Ambystoma tigrinum (= Ambystoma mavortium) from Fort Riley, 'Kansas', and 'Southern Kansas' including one with only three phalanges on both feet.from the 'Museum of the Philadelphia Academy' (ANSP). 2) The first record of Spelerpes multiplcatus (= Eurycea tynerensis) from 'southern Kansas' and sent to Cope by Francis W. Cragin. 3) Three specimens of Bufo compactilis (= Anaxyrus speciosus) from Kansas with rudimentary cranial crests and small spots [Anaxyrus speciosus does not occur with 100 miles of Kansas currently, it is possible these specimens are young Anaxyrus woodhousii. They should be reexamined if they still exist.] 4) Lists Bufo lentiginosus americanus (= Anaxyrus americanus) from Kansas. 5) Lists Acris gryllus (= Acris blanchardi) from Kansas. 6) Includes a Chorophilus triseriatus (= Pseudacris maculata) from "Blue River, Kansas".
1911 Hurter, Julius. Herpetology of Missouri. Transactions of the Academy of Science St. Louis 20(5):59-274
1926 Dunn, Emmett R The Salamanders of the Family Plethodontidae Smith College, Northampton, Massachusets. 441pp.
1933 Stejneger, Leonhard and Thomas Barbour. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 3rd Edition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. pp.
Reference to Kansas is the listed range of several species.
1933 Brumwell, Malcolm J. Distributional records of the reptilia and amphibians of Kansas. Privately printed, . 22pp.
County dot maps of the Kansas herpetofauna. This work has been attributed to have been written around 1933, but that may be in error.
1933 Smith, Hobart M. The Amphibians of Kansas Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 383pp.
The first full accounting of the twenty-five species of amphibians known to occur in Kansas. Includes Ambystoma maculatum which is currently not included in the Kansas faunal list.
1934 Smith, Hobart M. The Amphibians of Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 15(4):377-527
The formal publication of Hobart Smith's Master's Thesis (Smith 1933), though there are several updated and additions. In addition to the species accounts for all twenty-five species, the paper includes a history of amphibian biology in Kansas and discussions on taxonomy and physiography. 
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
The first modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table and text say 97 on p. 10) and 13 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies.
1953 Schmidt, Karl P. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 280pp.
Schmidt's first edition of his standardized checklist to North American amphibians and reptiles. Includes several specific references to Kansas in the range descriptions.
1956 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. Second edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (9):1-356
Hobart M. Smith's updated second edition of his first (1950) modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table says 97 on p. 10; text says 98 on p. 10) and 11 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies. The second edition has updated taxonomy, added Plestiodon laticeps, and removed Eurycea tynerensis.
1965 Dundee, Harold A. Eurycea multiplicata. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (21):1-2
1965 Dundee, Harold A. Eurycea tynerensis. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (22):1-2
1970 Ireland, Patrick H Rediscovery of the grey-bellied salamander, Eurycea multiplicata griseogaster Moore and Hughes, in southeastern Kansas Southwestern Naturalist 14(3):366
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
Joseph T. Collins first Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Smith 1956)>
1976 Ashton, Ray E., Jr., Stephen R. Edwards, and George R. Pisani. Endangered and threatened amphibians and reptiles in the United States. Herpetological Circulars (5):65
1977 Rundquist, Eric M. and Joseph T. Collins. The amphibians of Cherokee County, Kansas. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 12pp.
1977 Perry, Janice. Kansas herps needed. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (18):2-3
List of Kansas amphibians and reptiles desired for the SSAR/HL meeting to be held 7-13 August 1977.
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
Joseph T. Collins second Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1974)>
1983 Ireland, Patrick H. and Ronald Altig. Key to the gilled salamander larvae and larviform adults of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Southwestern Naturalist 28(3):271-274
1984 Altig, Ronald and Patrick H. Ireland. A key to salamander larvae and larviform adults of the United States and Canada. Herpetologica 40(2):212-218
1986 Beard, James B. Salamanders of Schermerhorn Park Cave, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (66):7-8
1988 Busby, William H. The Kansas Natural Heritage Program: Taking stock of Kansas' natural heritage. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (71):9-12
1989 Simmons, John E. Endangered and threatened in Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (75):4-5
1989 Capron, Marty. Threatened and endangered: A critique of the Kansas list. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (76):14-15
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1992 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas endangered, threatened, and SINC species. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (91):
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
Joseph T. Collins third Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1982)>
1994 Rundquist, Eric M. 1994 Field Trip Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (95):3-4
1994 Rundquist, Eric M. KHS spring field trip a resounding success Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):2
1995 Moriarty, Emily C. and Joseph T. Collins. First known occurrence of amphibian species in Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (100):28-30
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
2001 Kirk, Jay D. Reintroduction of the Pickerel Frog (Rana palustris) to Cherokee County, Kansas Thesis. Friends University, Wichita, Kansas. 54pp.
2002 Layher, Bill. Recovery plan for four salamander species of Cherokee County, Kansas Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 18pp.
2004 Bonett, Ronald M. and Paul T. Chippindale. Speciation, phylogeography and evolution of life history and morphology in plethodontid salamanders of the Eurycea multiplicata complex Molecular Ecology 13(5):1189-1203
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2008 Industrial Economics, Incorporated Cherokee County: Restoration Plan / Environmental Assessment. Prepared for: US Department of the Interior, US Fish and Wildlife Service. Industrial Economics, Incorporated, Cambridge, MA. 138pp.
2009 Allison, Nathaniel T. The honorable E. B. Schermerhorn. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (30):10
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
Joseph T. Collins fourth Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1993)>
2012 Rohweder, Megan R. Spatial conservation prioritization of Kansas for terrestrial vertebrates. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 151pp.
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
2020 Daniel, Richard E. and Brian S. Edmond. Atlas of Missouri Amphibians and Reptiles for 2019. Privately printed, Columbia, Missouri. 86pp.
Account Last Updated:
5/24/2021 1:45:01 PM