AMPHIBIA (Amphibians) ANURA (Frogs and Toads) BUFONIDAE (True Toads)

WOODHOUSE'S TOAD
Anaxyrus woodhousii (Girard 1854)
ăn-ăx-ĕr-ŭs — wood-hous-ē-ī


Conservation Status:

State: None

Federal: None
NatureServe State: S5 - Secure
NatureServe National: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Global: G5 - Secure
CITES: None

An adult Woodhouse's Toad from Ellis County, Kansas. Image by Jake Scott (iNat: jakescott). iNat Obs: #91600702.
An adult Woodhouse's Toad from Hamilton County, Kansas. Image © Travis W. Taggart.
Image © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.
A tadpole of Bufo woodhousii. Image © Altig et al. (2006).

Description:
The Woodhouse's Toad is a large toad. Its parotoid glands are narrow and spread apart by more than one (parotoid) length. Cranial crests run lengthwise from the front of the eyes to the back edge of the eyes, then turn sharply towards the side of the toad and extend to the outside edges of the eyes. It is olive-green dorsally, with dark splotches and a pale stripe down the center of the back. The warts are dark and small and the blotches typically contain two or more warts. The underside is cream to white colored and unmarked (or with a diffuse central spot between the arms). The throat is slightly darker in color, and males that have called have throats that are much darker than the rest of the belly.
Adults are normally 64-100 mm (2½-4 inches) in snout-vent length. The largest Kansas specimen is a female (KU 158018) from Douglas County with a snout-vent length of 120 mm (4¾ inches) collected by Ken Davidson on 9 July 1975. The maximum length throughout the range is 5 inches (127 mm) (Powell et al. 2016).

Distribution:
Common throughout all but extreme southeast Kansas where they are gradually replaced by Fowler's Toads (Bufo fowleri).
Juveniles may be largely restricted to relatively mesic environments associated with breeding habitats of adults.
Adults are found in a variety of habitats although they are uncommon in nonriparian woodlands. They can be common in disturbed habitats such as irrigated fields, golf courses, and urban parks with ponds.
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  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 2,954
    Records 
  • 2,233
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 721
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):
Allen (12); Atchison (1); Barber (141); Barton (29); Brown (7); Butler (25); Chase (20); Cherokee (3); Cheyenne (38); Clark (9); Clay (11); Cloud (6); Coffey (3); Comanche (59); Cowley (113); Decatur (18); Dickinson (29); Doniphan (10); Douglas (133); Edwards (6); Elk (2); Ellis (242); Ellsworth (4); Finney (124); Ford (11); Franklin (1); Geary (15); Gove (23); Graham (102); Grant (9); Gray (26); Greeley (1); Greenwood (5); Hamilton (42); Harper (20); Harvey (16); Haskell (2); Hodgeman (4); Jackson (24); Jefferson (9); Jewell (7); Johnson (6); Kearney (10); Kearny (3); Kingman (45); Kiowa (5); Lane (20); Leavenworth (11); Lincoln (8); Linn (2); Logan (53); Lyon (5); Marion (59); Marshall (53); McPherson (35); Meade (68); Miami (1); Mitchell (9); Montgomery (5); Morris (1); Morton (181); Nemaha (9); Ness (73); Norton (22); Osage (8); Osborne (10); Ottawa (2); Pawnee (20); Phillips (24); Pottawatomie (117); Pratt (19); Rawlins (8); Reno (50); Republic (4); Rice (15); Riley (101); Rooks (16); Rush (27); Russell (71); Saline (8); Scott (20); Sedgwick (107); Seward (4); Shawnee (18); Sheridan (27); Sherman (1); Smith (4); Stafford (42); Stanton (4); Stevens (4); Sumner (13); Thomas (2); Trego (72); Unknown (4); Wabaunsee (23); Wallace (38); Washington (14); Wichita (3); Woodson (1); Wyandotte (7);

Natural History:
Standing water is preferred for breeding— pools along intermittent drainages, artificial ponds and reservoirs, rain-filled depressions, and cattle tanks in open grassland are utilized, from late March through June.
A single female may lay up to 28,000 small (3-4 mm) eggs in long gelatinous strands attached to vegetation in shallow water. The tadpoles are generally black, although the venter of the tail is pale. Larvae are often observed in large aggregations in stream and pond habitats, typically in standing water, resting on the muddy substrate.
Like most toads, they remain hidden/buried during the day and are most active on humid nights. They can often be found around buildings foraging under lights that attract insects. Hartman (1906) examined the stomach contents of three young specimens from Graham County, that found ants and small beetles.
They frequent a great variety of habitats but seem to be most abundant in sandy areas. The call is a low-pitched nasal waaaaah that can be heard following rains from March through June.


Occurrence Activity:
The blue dates denote chorusing activity. The red dates are other occurrences. The darker a date is, the greater the relative number of observations for that date.
Chorusing:

Audio recording by Keith Coleman.

Chorusing Phenology: The black outlined dots denote the Julian date (day of the year; 1 January = 1 to 31 December = 365) an observation was made. The thin red line depicts the range of dates between the beginning of the first, and end of the fourth quartile (excluding outliers; Tukey method). The thick light blue bar represents the second and third quartile (interquartile range; the middle 50% of all observations). Only one observation per Julian date is included in the graphs; so a date with multiple observations carries the same weight as a date with only one observation. The vertical bars correspond to the 12 months of the year; January through December.
# Unique Obervations: 553; Range: 25 Mar to 01 Sep; Interquartile range: 06 May to 23 Jun;

Remarks:
Hallowell (1859) mentions the Woodhouse's Toad from the "upper Arkansas". However, it was first reported definitely from Kansas by Cragin, (1880) listed a specimen from "Kansas' under the synonym Bufo lentiginosus Shaw., var. frontosus Cope.
The earliest existing specimen (KU 6386) was collected on Mouth Oread in Lawrence (Douglas County) on 17 May 1904 by Frank A. Harman (see Moriarty and Collins, 1995).
Maximum longevity: 13 years, 3 months, and 12 days (Snider and Bowler, 1992).

Bibliography:
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1848 Abert, James W. Notes of Lieutenant J. W. Abert. Appendix Number 6. Pages 386-414 in Notes of a Military Reconnaissance from Fort Leavenworth, in Missouri to San Diego, in California including Parts of Arkansas, Del Norte and Gila Rivers Wendell and Benthuysen, Printers, Senate Executive Document 41, 30th Congress First Session, Washington, D. C. pp.
Lieutenant Abert left Fort Leavenworth on 27 June 1846 en route to San Diego, California.
By 8 July they had reached Turkey Creek in Marion County, where he remarked "The men killed several rattlesnakes near our camp, and one a grey snake, marked with a row of blackish spots along the back; it is said never to exceed two feet in length, and is called the grey rattlesnake."
On 11 July they had reach Cow Creek in Rice County and Abert noted "As our wagons moved along the road, the lizards (Lacerta lineatus) [Aspidoscelis sexlineata] were darting rapidly along the ruts in front of it, anxious to escape being crushed. The common land turtle (Testudo clausa) [Terrepene ornata] were also very abundant."
On 14 July they had reached Pawnee Rock (Barton County) where he wrote, "This morning Laing brought me a very large toad, (Rana musica) [currently a synonym for Anaxyrus terrestris but likely referring to A. woodhousii far exceeding any I ever before have seen."
On 15 July, and still at Pawnee Rock he wrote "To-day we saw several large white cranes with black-tipped wings; (Grus americanus) and Laing killed me some rattlesnakes, (Crotalus horridus) [not local] and several prairie snakes."
On 18 July they were moving along the Arkansas River west of Pawnee Rock and noted "The ruts of the road were full of little lizards, sunning themselves; as we approached they would dart briskly away, manifestly disinclined to play the part of devotees to Juggernaut."
1854 Girard, Charles. A list of the North American Bufonids, with diagnoses of new species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 7():86-88
Contains the original descriptions of Anaxyrus debilis (page 87) from "lower part of the valley of the Rio Bravo (Rio Grande del Norte), and in the province [state] of Tamaulipas", Mexico" and Anaxyrus woodhousii (page 86) from "New Mexico . . . . collected . . . expedition . . . rivers Zuni and Great and Little Colorado of the West". Given as "San Francisco Mountain, New Mexico (i.e. Arizona)".
1859 Hallowell, Edward. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean Vol. X, Part IV, No. 1, Washington, D. C. 1-27pp.
1880 Cragin, Francis W. A preliminary catalogue of Kansas reptiles and batrachians Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 7():112-123
Also listed the Scarlet Snake (Cemophora coccinea) [=Ophibolus doliatus var. coccineus] and Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) [=Spelerpes ruber] from Kansas.
1906 Dickerson, Mary C. The Frog Book; North American Toads and Frogs, with Study of the Habits and Life Histories of Those of the Northeastern States. Doubleday, Page & Company, New York, New York. 253pp.
1906 Hartman, Frank A. Food habits of Kansas lizards and batrachians. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 20():225-229
1925 Linsdale, Jean M. Land Vertebrates of a Limited Area in Eastern Kansas. Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 312pp.
1925 Storer, Tracy I. A synopsis of the amphibia of California. University of California Publications in Zoology (27):1-342
Reference to Kansas in the Bufo cognatus and Bufo woodhousii accounts.
1927 Burt, Charles E. An annotated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Riley County, Kansas. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (189):12
Accounts on forty species known from the vicinity of Manhattan, Riley County, Kansas. There have been several scientific names changes since publication, which is understandable... however, some usages cannot be explained by subsequent taxonomic reappraisals(e.g.  Gastrophryne carolinensis for Gastrophryne olivacea). The writer lists Eumeces (=Plestiodon) obsoletus and E. guttulatus yet correctly reasoning that the latter is the young of the former. Within the account of Tantilla gracilis (a common form) the writer mentions that T. nigriceps was reported from Riley County by Branson (1904) but that the specimens at Kansas State were absent at the time of publication. The Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) was first reported from Riley County by Branson (1904) and is reported by the writer based on a specimen in the museum at Kansas State University by Professor E. A. Popenoe. The Prairie Rattlesnake is not currently native to Riley County, and closest reliable localities are 150 to the west.
1927 Linsdale, Jean M. Amphibians and reptiles of Doniphan County, Kansas. Copeia 1927(164):75-81
1929 Burt, Charles E. and May Danheim Burt. A collection of amphibians and reptiles from the Mississippi valley, with field observations. American Museum Novitates (381):1-14
1929 Taylor, Edward H. List of reptiles and batrachians of Morton County, Kansas, reporting species new to the state fauna. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 19(6):63-65
Annotated listing of 25 species discovered in southwest Morton County just prior to the Dust Bowl that wreaked havoc on the region and the subsequent creation of the Cimarron National Grassland. Of special note are Heterodon platirhinos, Thamnophis marcianus, and Anaxyrus debilis (all of which have not been found in the area since).
1933 Stejneger, Leonhard and Thomas Barbour. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 3rd Edition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. pp.
Reference to Kansas is the listed range of several species.
1933 Brumwell, Malcolm J. Distributional records of the reptilia and amphibians of Kansas. Privately printed, . 22pp.
County dot maps of the Kansas herpetofauna.
1933 Smith, Hobart M. The Amphibians of Kansas Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 383pp.
The first full accounting of the twenty-five species of amphibians known to occur in Kansas. Includes Ambystoma maculatum which is currently not included in the Kansas faunal list.
1934 Smith, Hobart M. The Amphibians of Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 15(4):377-527
The formal publication of Hobart Smith's Master's Thesis (Smith 1933), though there are several updated and additions. In addition to the species accounts for all twenty-five species, the paper includes a history of amphibian biology in Kansas and discussions on taxonomy and physiography. 
1934 Brennan, Lawrence A. A check list of the amphibians and reptiles of Ellis County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():189-191
1935 Brennan, Lawrence A. Notes on the Distribution of Amphibia and Reptilia of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 114pp.
1936 Youngstrom, Karl A. and Hobart M. Smith Description of the larvae of Pseudacris triseriata and Bufo w. woodhousii. American Midland Naturalist 17(3):629-633
Specimens collected near Lawrence, Kansas (see Youngstrom 1937).
1936 Hibbard, Claude W. and A. Byron Leonard. The occurrence of Bufo punctatus in Kansas . Copeia 1936(2):114
1937 Youngstrom, Karl A. Studies on developing behavior in anuran larvae and tadpoles. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 118pp.
1937 Brennan, Lawrence A. A study of the habitat of reptiles and amphibians of Ellis County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 40():341-347
1942 Hudson, G. E. The amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Nebraska Conservation Bulletin 24():1-146
1943 Bragg, Arthur N. and Charles Clinton Smith. Observations on the ecology and natural history of anura IV: The ecological distribution of toads in Oklahoma. Ecology 24(3):285-309
Discusses the ecology and habitat associations with states adjacent to Oklahoma. Reported Anaxyrus speciosus from several young specimens collected 100+ miles further north than they had ever been recorded; in Harper County, Oklahoma (adjacent to Clark and Comanche counties in Kansas). Bragg goes on to state these help to corroborate the record from "western Kansas" by Cope (xxxx) and doubted by Smith (1934). These records of A. speciosus are not currently considered valid. Reports Anaxyrus debilis and Anaxyrus punctatus from Kansas based on Taylor (1929) and Smith (1934) respectively. He reports new records from Woods County, Oklahoma discovered just south of the Kansas (Barber and Comanche counties) state line. Mentions A. woodhousii as occurring in Kansas.
1944 Marr, John C. Notes on amphibians and reptiles from the central United States. American Midland Naturalist 32(2):478-490
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
The first modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table and text say 97 on p. 10) and 13 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies.
1951 Brumwell, Malcolm J. An ecological survey of the Fort Leavenworth Military Reservation American Midland Naturalist 45(1):187-231
Published posthumously. Lieutenant Brumwell died December 14, 1941, as a result of injuries incurred during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. This paper is a condensed version of his thesis for the Master's degree.
1956 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. Second edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (9):1-356
Hobart M. Smith's updated second edition of his first (1950) modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table says 97 on p. 10; text says 98 on p. 10) and 11 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies. The second edition has updated taxonomy, added Plestiodon laticeps, and removed Eurycea tynerensis.
1956 Loomis, Richard B. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 37():1195-1443
Examined 2,628 Kansas reptiles of 48 species consisting of 27 turtles of 4 species, 1,736 lizards of 12 species and 892 snakes of 32 species for chiggers. Eleven species of chiggers were recovered from reptiles.
For amphibians, 1188 individuals of 21 species were examined. Five species of chigger mite were recovered from amphibians.
1962 Gish, Charles D. The Herpetofauna of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 34pp.
1962 Meachen, W. R. Factors affecting secondary intergradation between two allopatric populations in the Bufo woodhousei complex. American Midland Naturalist 67():282-304
1974 Eshelman, Ralph E. Geology and paleontology of the early Pleistocene Belleville Formation of north central Kansas. Dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 137pp.
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
Joseph T. Collins first Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Smith 1956)>
1974 Perry, Janice. KHS members take trip to southwest Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (3):2-3
Account of a search for Crotalus atrox and other species discovered in Comanche County.
1975 Rundquist, Eric M. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kingman County, Kansas. Privately Printed, Lawrence, Kansas. 3pp.
Short accounts for twenty-nine recognized amphibians and reptiles from Kingman County, Kansas. With habitat descriptions and for some species, estimates of population density.
1975 Rundquist, Eric M. First KHS field trip yields three county records. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (7):1-3
Narration of the activities and species found during the KHS field trip to Kingman County, Kansas. From the title of the article, there were three county records were obtained, however, only Plestiodon septentrionalis is indicated as being 'new'.
1975 Perry, Janice. A trip to southeastern Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (7):4
1976 Rundquist, Eric M. Field checklist (of) amphibians and reptiles of Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Caldwell, Janalee P. and Gregory. Glass. Vertebrates of the Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Pages 62-76 in Preliminary inventory of the biota of Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Report No. 5. State Biological Survey of Kansas, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Capron, Marty and Jan Perry. A July weekend in Great Bend. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (14):1-2
1977 Rundquist, Eric M. and Joseph T. Collins. The amphibians of Cherokee County, Kansas. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 12pp.
1977 Knight, James L. and Joseph T. Collins. The amphibians and reptiles of Cheyenne County, Kansas, Report Number 15. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 19pp.
1977 Steiner, Creighton D. Reproduction and ecology of the toad Bufo woodhousei woodhousei, (Amphibia: Bufonidae) in Nance County, Nebraska. Thesis. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.. 46pp.
1977 Irwin, Kelly J. KHS Ottawa County meeting profitable. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (20):1-2
1977 Stegall, Eddie. First Strecker's Chorus Frog collected in Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (21):11-13
1978 Curl, Richard L. Final Environmental Statement: Milford Lake Kansas operation and maintenance. US Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District. 158pp.
Notable mentions: Spotted Salamander, Smooth Green Snake
1978 Warner, M. and R. Wencel. Chikaskia River study held near Caldwell. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (25):15-16
1978 Schwaner, Terry D. KHS field trip to Grant County, Kansas, 12-14 May 1978. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (25):3-4
1979 Gray, Peter and Eddie Stegall. A field trip to the Red Hills. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (29):6-8
1979 Miller, Larry L. Life in Kansas and Oklahoma once again threatened by pesticides. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (31):7
Report on damage to wildlife as a result of the aerial spraying of toxaphene and parthion in south-central Kansas for Army-cutworms. Animals noted to be affected (besides cutworms) "...amphibians such as leopard frogs, bullfrogs, and several species of toads. Several turtles, snakes, and other reptiles were also found dead in the area as well as birds and small mammals...".
1979 Guarisco, Hank. Preliminary laboratory observatoins of predation by native Texas Garter Snakes upon hatchling Five-lined Skinks. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (32):7-8
1980 Clarke, Robert F. Herptiles and fishes of the western Arkansas River in Kansas. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 55pp.
A summary of known information on the amphibian, reptile, and fish faunas of the Arkansas River above Great Bend. The report details associated field activities for procuring fish, however no new surveys for amphibians and reptiles were undertaken. Information on herps from Finney County was provided by Michael Rush (FHSU) and thus made available before the publication of his thesis (Rush, 1981). The western Arkansas River drainage had experienced little attention by herpetologists before this study, and the species accounts reflect that paucity of data. Additionally, the report omits several older records (e.g. for Anaxyrus debilisThamnophis cyrtopsis, and Lampropeltis calligaster) from the westernmost reaches of the Arkansas River drainage in Kansas.
1982 Fitch, Henry S. Resources of a snake community in prairie-woodland habitat of northeastern Kansas. Pages 83-97 in Herpetological communities: A symposium of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles and the Herpetologists League, August 1977.  Wildlife Research Reports 12. 239 pp. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D. C. pp.
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
Joseph T. Collins second Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1974)>
1983 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1982 . Technical Publication of the State Biological Survey of Kansas 13():9-21
1984 Brown, Kenneth L. Pomona: A plains village variant in eastern Kansas and western Missouri. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 519pp.
1984 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1983. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (56):15-26
Invalidated the specimens of Thamnophis sirtalis from Hamilton County (reidentified as T. cyrtopsis; KU 2088) and Wallace County mapped in Collins, 1982.
1984 Schwarting, Nancy. KHS field trip, May 1984. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (57):3-4
1984 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1984. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (58):14-20
1985 Miller, Larry L. KHS 1985 field trip to Kirwin Reservoir. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (61):11-12
1986 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1986. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (66):9-16
1987 Coleman, Keith. Annual KHS Field Trip held at Atchison State Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (68):5-6
1987 Simmons, John E. September 1987 field trip report. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (69):42894
1988 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1987. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (71):13-19
1989 Collins, Joseph T. First Kansas herp counts held in 1989. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (77):11-
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Results of second Kansas herp count held during April-May 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):10-12
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Maximum size records for Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):13-17
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Reptiles and Amphibians of the Cimarron National Grasslands, Morton County, Kansas. U. S. Forest Service, Elkhart, Kansas. 60pp.
1991 Fitch, Henry S. Reptiles and amphibians of the Kansas ecological reserves. Pages 71-74 in Multidisciplinary Guidebook 4. Kansas Academy of Science, Lawrence. pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (83):7-13
1991 Collins, Joseph T. Results of third Kansas herp count held during April-May 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (85):9-13
1992 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (87):12-17
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Observations on Kansas amphibians and reptiles Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (88):13-15
1992 Collins, Joseph T. Results of the fourth Kansas herp count held during April-May 1992. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (89):10-
1992 Edds, David R. Observations of the 1992 Sharon Springs rattlesnake roundup. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (90):11
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS annual field trip to Sheridan County State Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (90):3-4
1992 Taggart, Travis W. KHS field trips. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (91):3
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
Joseph T. Collins third Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1982)>
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the fifth Kansas herp count held during April-June 1993 . Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (94):7-11
1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):5-14
See, 1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Additions and corrections [to the results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994]. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):4.
1995 Anderson, Lewis, Mark Shaw, Jeff Blodig, and Tom Walker. Report to the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks: Herps encountered during REmap project, summer 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (99):10-17
1995 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (100):24-47
1995 Moriarty, Emily C. and Joseph T. Collins. First known occurrence of amphibian species in Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (100):28-30
1995 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the seventh annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (101):11-17
1995 Rundquist, Eric M. Additional KHS herp counts for 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (102):11-
1995 Moriarty, Emily C. and Joseph T. Collins. An estimate of numbers of Plains leopard frogs at a site in northeastern Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (102):14-15
1996 Miller, Larry L. Results of the KHS 1995 fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (103):3
1996 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eighth annual KHS herp counts Held 1 April-31 May 1996. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (104):6-17
1996 Rakestraw, J. Spring herp counts: A Kansas tradition. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (March-April):75-80
1996 Green, David M. The bounds of species: hybridization in the Bufo americanus group of North American toads Israel Journal of Zoology 42():95-109
1996 Sullivan, Brian K., K. B. Malmos, and M. F. Given. Systematics of the Bufo woodhousii complex (Anura: Bufonidae): advertisement call variation Copeia 1996(2):274-280
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the ninth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1997. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (108):12-17
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Addendum to 1997 KHS herp counts. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (109):14-15
1997 Taggart, Travis W. Status of Bufo debilis (Anura: Bufonidae) in Kansas Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (109):7-12
The specimens (KU) cited from Hamilton County, have been corrected.
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1998 Gamble, Jerre Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hartford, Kansas. 91pp.
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the tenth annual KHS herp counts for 1998, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (112):11-18
1999 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas Herpetological Society herp counts: A 10 year summary and evaluation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (115):42962
1999 Taggart, Travis W. Cherokee County fall 1999 herp count. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (117):6
Reported Anaxyrus woodhousii was likely A. fowleri.
2000 Taggart, Travis W. KHS spring field trip sets record for attendance. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (120):5-5
2000 Van Doren, Mark D. and Curtis J. Schmidt. A herpetological survey of the Fort Larned National Historic Site, Pawnee County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (120):8-11
2000 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eleventh and twelfth annual KHS herpetofaunal counts for 1999-2000, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (122):11-16
2001 Fitch, Henry S. Further study of the garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, in northeastern Kansas. Scientific Papers of the Natural History Museum University of Kansas (19):1-6
2001 Schmidt, Curtis J. The amphibians, turtles, and reptiles of the Smoky Valley Ranch, Logan County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (124):9-11
2001 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS spring field trip west. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):10
2001 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the thirteenth annual KHS herp counts for 2001, held 1 April-30 June. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):13-16
2001 Witters, Lani R. and Lynnette Sievert. Feeding causes thermophily in the Woodhouse's Toad (Bufo woodhousii). Journal of Thermal Biology 26(3):205-208
2001 Kretzer, Justin E. and Jack F. Cully, Jr. Effects of Blacktailed Prairie Dogs on reptiles and amphibians in Kansas shortgrass prairie. Southwestern Naturalist 46(2):171-177
2002 Kingsbury, Bruce and Joanna Gibson. Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Midwest. Publication of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, Address not given. 152pp.
2002 Ellis, Mark R. Fall 2002 KHS field trip to Washington County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (2):4-5
2002 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the spring 2002 KHS field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (3):6-7
To the Cimarron National Grassland, in Morton and Stevens counties.
2002 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2002 fall field Trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):11-13
To Washington County, Kansas (also includes ancillary counts from Clay and Marshall counties).
2002 Masta, Susan E., Brian K. Sullivan, Trip Lamb, and Eric J. Routman Molecular systematics, hybridization, and phylogeography of the Bufo americanus complex in eastern North America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24():302-314
2003 Suleiman, G. Fort Riley herpetofaunal count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):11-12
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2003 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):3-4
2003 Washburne, Jeremy and Michael. Washburne. Geographic distribution: Bufo woodhousii. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):8
2003 Suleiman, Gibran. Fort Riley herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):9
2004 Delisle, Jennifer M. and William H. Busby Biological inventory for vertebrates at Fort Larned National Historic Site of the southern plains network. Natural Heritage Inventory, Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 61pp.
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2004 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (9):2
2004 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians, turtles, and reptiles in Kansas for 2003. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (9):8-11
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Geographic distribution. Bufo woodhousii. Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (10):10
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2004 KHS spring field trip to Logan County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (10):2-7
2004 Volkmann, Al. Cowley County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):10
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2004 fall feld trip . Journal of Kansas Herpetology (12):15-16
2005 Taggart, Travis W., Curtis J. Schmidt, and Richard S. Hayes. Geographic distribution: Bufo woodhousii. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (13):10
2005 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2005 fall field trip [to Crawford County]. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (16):19-21
2006 Altig, Ronald, Roy W. McDiarmid, Kimberly A. Nichols, and Paul C. Ustach Tadpoles of the United States and Canada: A Tutorial and Key Electronic files accessible at http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/tadpole/. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA. ():
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Addendum report to biological inventory of the sandsage prairie near Holcomb, Kansas. Sunflower Electric Cooperative, Hays, Kansas. 31pp.
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2006 Frost, Darrel R, Taran Grant, Julian Faivovich, Raoul H. Bain, Alexander Haas, Celio F. B. Haddad, Rafael O. De Sa, Alan Channing, Mark Wilkinson, Stephen C. Donnellan, Christopher J. Raxworthy, Jonathan A. Campbell, Boris L. Blotto, Paul Moler, Robert C. Drewes, Ronald A. Nussbaum, John D. Lynch, David M. Green, and Ward C. Wheeler. The amphibian tree of life Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (297):370
2007 Taggart, Travis W., Joseph T. Collins, and Curtis J. Schmidt. Estimates of amphibian, reptile, and turtle mortality if Phostoxin is applied to 10,000 acres of prairie dog burrows in Logan County, Kansas. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. 5pp.
2007 Taggart, Travis W. A biological inventory of the Sunflower Electric Site near Holcomb, Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology 23():11-16
2008 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2008 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (25):2-3
2009 Fontenot, Brian E. Natural hybridization and speciation in toads of the Anaxyrus americanus group. Dissertation. University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas. 224pp.
Used an Anaxyrus woodhousii from Russell County in his analyses.
2009 Murrow, Daniel G. KHS 2009 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (29):42769
2010 Miller, Larry L. Investigation of the Checkered Garter Snake in Kansas with notes on other Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles encountered. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 31pp.
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
Joseph T. Collins fourth Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1993)>
2010 Murrow, Daniel G. Kansas Herpetological Society spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (33):2-3
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 spring field trip to beheld in Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (37):5-7
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 Summer Field Trip to Scott State Park Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):2
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 Fall Field Trip to Lovewell State Park Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):4-5
2011 Fontenot, Brian E., Robert Makowsky, Paul T. Chippindale. Nuclear-mitochondrial discordance and gene flow in a recent radiation of toads. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 59():66-80
2012 Rohweder, Megan R. Spatial conservation prioritization of Kansas for terrestrial vertebrates. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 151pp.
2013 Bass, Neil The Missouri River Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Project: For the river, for you, and for herps. Collinsorum 2(1/2):10-11
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Summer Field Trip to Meade County State Park. Collinsorum 2(3/4):3
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Fall Field Trip to Atchison County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):4
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Summer Field Trip to Coldwater Lake, Comanche County. Collinsorum 2(3/4):5
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Fall Field Trip to Butler County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):6
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS Spring Field Trip to Barber County Collinsorum 3(2-4):11
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS summer field trip to Morton County and adjacent Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Collinsorum 3(2-4):12
2015 Brown, Kasandra A. Occupancy Modeling Of Herpetofauna And Grassland Nesting Birds At Quivira National Wildlife Refuge. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 72pp.
2015 Mike Houck. 2015 Fort Riley Herpetofaunal Count final report. Collinsorum 4(1):10-11
2015 Bass, Neil. Herpetological (Frog and Turtle) Inventories along the Missouri River in Kansas. Collinsorum 4(1):5-9
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Spring Field Trip to the Greenhorn Limestone of Russell County. Collinsorum 4(3):2
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Summer Field Trip In The Harvey County Sandhills. Collinsorum 4(3):3
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Fall Field Trip Held In Washington County. Collinsorum 4(3):4
2016 Pittman, Galen L., Henry S. Fitch, and W. Dean Kettle Vertebrate animals on the Fitch Natural History Reservation (1948-2002) Kansas Biological Survey Report Number 188, Lawrence. 48pp.
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Spring 2016 KHS field trip to Clark County was a soggy success. Collinsorum 5(2-3):2-3
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS ‘Fall’ field trip to Barber County. Collinsorum 5(2-3):6-7
2017 Snyder, Ariel. Survey Of Anuran Chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in Kansas and the Influence of Anuran Life History in Occurrence. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 53pp.
2017 Taggart, Travis W. and J. Daren Riedle. A Pocket Guide to Kansas Amphibians, Turtles and Lizards. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, Kansas. 69pp.
2020 Han, Donglin The effects of body temperature on the transit rate and endurance of hopping behavior of Anaxyrus woodhousii. Thesis. Emporia State Univeristy, Emporia, Kansas.. 37pp.
Used specimens from Coffey, Kingman, and Lyon counties.
2020 Daniel, Richard E. and Brian S. Edmond. Atlas of Missouri Amphibians and Reptiles for 2019. Privately printed, Columbia, Missouri. 86pp.
2020 Riedle, J. Daren. Revisiting Kansas Herpetological Society field trip and Herp Count data: Distributional patterns and trend data of Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Collinsorum 9(1):7-16
2020 Kramer, Diedre Pratt Education Center and Wildlife Museum. Kansas Wildlife and Parks Magazine May/June():39-41
2021 Schmidt, Curtis J. Herp Count: Russell County: KHS-2020-19. Collinsorum 9(3):14
2021 Taggart, Megan M. and Travis W. Taggart. Herp Count: Seward County: KHS-2020-27. Collinsorum 9(3):15
2021 Taggart, Travis W. Herp Count: Harper County: KHS-2020-26. Collinsorum 9(3):15
2021 Taggart, Jesse J. and Travis W. Taggart. Herp Count: Harvey County: KHS-2020-29. Collinsorum 9(3):16
Account Last Updated:
8/18/2021 8:05:51 AM