An adult Crawfish Frog from Chautauqua County, Kansas (iNat: 115588329). Image by iNat user Dexter R Mardis (prairiehagrid).
An adult emerging from a burrow in Crawford County. Image © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.
A tadpole of Lithobates areolatus. Image © Altig et al. (2006).
AMPHIBIA (Amphibians) ANURA (Frogs) RANIDAE (True Frogs)

Crawfish Frog
Lithobates areolatus (Baird & Girard 1852)
lĭth-ō-bā-tēz — ər-ē-ō-lā-tŭs


Conservation Status:

State: Kansas Species in Need of Conservation (SINC)

Federal: None
NatureServe State: S4 - Apparently Secure
NatureServe National: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Global: G5 - Secure
CITES: None
Diagnosis:
The Crawfish Frog is relatively large and robust, and only the bullfrog reaches a greater maximum size. The Crawfish Frog is characterized by moist skin, a round snout, a raised fold of skin on each side of the back running from behind the eye down to the thigh, and a network (reticulate) pattern of light and dark flecks and lines between spots on the back and sides. The head, body, and front limbs of this frog are gray or light brown and covered with numerous blue-brown or dark brown light-edged spots. The network pattern appears between and around these spots. The rear limbs have dark brown crossbands. The belly is whitish. Males have an enlarged inner finger on each hand, and the females are larger than males.
Adults normally 57-75 mm (2¼-3 inches) in snout-vent length. The largest Kansas specimen is a female (FHSM 10447) from Bourbon County with a snout-vent length of 122 mm (4¾ inches) collected by Derek Welch and Curtis J. Schmidt on 31 March 2005. This is the maximum reported length throughout their range (Powell, et al. 2016).

Distribution:
This taxon is known from the Neosho, Marais des Cygnes, and northern Verdigris drainages, where they inhabit areas of perched water tables in upland grasslands with an abundance of crayfish. The northernmost records from Baker Wetlands/Wakarusa Bottoms (floodplain of the Wakarusa River: Kansas River drainage) in Douglas County may be extirpated (last observed in 1978).
(,   Museum Voucher) (,   Observation) (,   Literature Record) (,   iNat Record), (  Fossil)
Open icons are questionable records; Click on a marker to view details.
Full range depicted by light shaded red area. Export Google Earth (.kml)
  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 677
    Records 
  • 355
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 322
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):
Allen (7); Anderson (13); Bourbon (25); Chase (1); Chautauqua (29); Cherokee (129); Coffey (80); Crawford (56); Douglas (102); Elk (14); Franklin (43); Greenwood (26); Labette (28); Linn (11); Lyon (3); Miami (12); Montgomery (21); Neosho (19); Osage (18); Trego (6); Unknown (14); Wilson (16); Woodson (4);

Fossil History:
Reported from the WaKeeney Local Fauna of Trego County based on two nearly complete frontoparietals by Wilson (1968) and two left and two right ilia by Holman (1976). The WaKeeney Local Fauna site is considered Lower Pliocene: Middle or Late Clarendonian (13,600,000 to 10,300,000 years BP). These records are extralimital of the species current range. The nearest recent observation is 316 km (196 m) ESE in Chase County.

Natural History:
Despite their relatively large size, these frogs are seldom seen. The Crawfish Frog inhabits floodplains, moist lowland meadows, and pastures. It prefers to hide in crayfish burrows but undoubtedly also uses the burrows of small mammals. In addition, it has been taken beneath logs, in holes along roadside ditches, and in sewers. This frog probably uses burrows as retreats during winter.
Hartman (1906) found a single specimen in a crayfish burrow on a river floodplain in Douglas County. Gloyd (1928) reported a specimen collected in a burrow in a pasture on 12 August in Franklin County.
Smith (1934) observed that this frog does not wander far from crayfish burrows except during the breeding season and that those burrows inhabited by this species have a flattened mud platform near the entrance and are three to five feet deep. Smith (1956) pointed out that this is the most secretive frog in Kansas and stated that its young probably retreat to underground burrows immediately after metamorphosis.
Busby (1990) surveyed six counties in eastern Kansas and found this frog primarily in native hay meadows and pastures as well as prairie bottomland. Taggart (1992) observed adults of this species active at night as early as 28 March at an air temperature of 51 °F in low, moist areas of cultivated fields in Allen County; he also plowed up sub-adults by day in the same fields in July.
The Crawfish Frog breeds in March, April, and possibly early May. Following rains sufficient enough to flood its refugia in crayfish burrows and concomitant temperatures above 50°F, this species emerges, migrates to small ponds and ditches, and begins to call. Their call is a low snore that can be heard for over a mile on still nights. Males mount females, clasping them behind their forelimbs, and the eggs are laid and fertilized in water. Each female may deposit up to 7,000 eggs in shallow water in masses 127.0-152.4 mm (5-6 inches) in diameter around plants and stems. The eggs hatch and tadpoles metamorphose during the summer.
Collins and Dawson (1975) found a chorus of 15-20 male Crawfish Frogs in a roadside slough on 5 May in Cherokee County. The slough had a maximum depth of 60 cm. The frogs were calling amidst a chorus of Southern Leopard Frogs. Caldwell and Glass (1976) found examples of the Crawfish Frog calling in a small farm pond on 30 April and l May in Woodson County. The frogs were calling at air temperatures of 50-60°F following a steady, heavy rain. Collins (1982) reported an extensive chorus of these frogs calling from roadside ditches and flooded fields in Miami County on 2 April. Collins (1982) heard choruses of this frog from 19 March to 30 April in Cherokee County. Busby (1990) recorded this frog calling in six eastern counties from 9 March to 14 April. Taggart (1992) heard this frog chorusing in Allen County on 2 April at an air temperature of 58°F.

Occurrence Activity:
Number of Unique Obervations (=days): 79; Range: 06 Mar to 30 Sep
Chorusing:

Audio recording by Keith Coleman.

Chorusing Phenology: The black outlined dots denote the Julian date (day of the year; 1 January = 1 to 31 December = 365) an observation was made. The thin red line depicts the range of dates between the beginning of the first, and end of the fourth quartile (excluding outliers; Tukey method). The thick light blue bar represents the second and third quartile (interquartile range; the middle 50% of all observations). Only one observation per Julian date is included in the graphs; so a date with multiple observations carries the same weight as a date with only one observation. The vertical bars correspond to the 12 months of the year; January through December.
Number of Unique Obervations: 271; Range: 06 Mar to 07 Jul; Interquartile range: 24 Mar to 24 Apr;

Remarks:
The Crawfish Frog was first reported in Kansas by Hartman, (1906) based on a single specimen discovered in the Wakarusa bottoms near Lawrence, Douglas County. The earliest existing specimen (KU 9275) was collected at Lawrence, Douglas County, in August 1910 by Francis A. Hartman.
Platt et al. (1974) recommended that breeding and habitat sites of this species be designated sanctuaries. Collins (1993) stated that this species may be disappearing rapidly from previously suitable habitat in Kansas due to its susceptibility to fluctuations of the water table caused by construction of dams, dikes, and levees.
Busby (1997) suggested that Crawfish Frogs were locally common in Kansas. And that they may be the dominant Ranid in high-quality habitat (remnant tallgrass prairie). However, he cautioned that little of this habitat exists compared to pre-settlement times.
Most Crawfish Frog observations are made in conjunction with breeding activity, by either hearing choruses or intercepting adults moving to a breeding site. Individuals of both sexes congregate in large water-filled depression and small farm ponds generally with some emergent vegetation such as cattails present. Additionally, individuals are regularly observed while attempting to cross roadways on rainy nights, but only while chorusing was taking place nearby. In fact, the detection of a frog on the road often reveals the existence of an adjacent chorus that we might otherwise have missed. Juvenile/metamorphs are seldom reported from roadways.
The Crawfish Frog is an abundant yet seldom seen component of the Kansas herpetofauna. Reports prior to Busby (1997) were generally isolated and infrequent (e.g. Hartman (1906), Taggart (1992)). The Crawfish Frog's early and relatively brief breeding season and its secretive habit of remaining in burrows the remainder of the year create the perception of rarity.
Despite, our increased understanding of the distribution and natural history of this species in Kansas, a cautionary note is needed. The populations of Crawfish Frogs have been extirpated from a portion of their range along the Wakarusa River near Lawrence by 1979 (von Achen, 1987). There is no apparent explanation for the disappearance, and this example further demonstrates that even the best-studied and managed systems are not exempt from such catastrophes. A repatriation attempt (J. Collins, pers. comm.) into the Baker Wetlands of Crawfish Frogs from Anderson County, has not been shown to be successful.
The Crawfish Frog was listed as a Kansas Threatened species in 1978 and downlisted to SINC in 1993.

Bibliography:
1852 Baird, Spencer F. and Charles Girard. Characteristics of some new reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Third part. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 6():173
Contains the original descriptions of Rana areolata (=Lithobates areolatus) and Bufo punctatus (=Anaxyrus punctatus), both on page 173.
1878 Rice, F. L. and N. S. Davis. R. circulosa [In Addenda]. Pages 355 in Jordan, D. S. ed., Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States, Including the District East of the Mississippi River, and North of North Carolina and Tennessee, Exclusive of Marine Species. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Jansen, McClurg, and Company, Chicago, Illinois.. pp.
1883 Davis, N. S., and Frank L. Rice. List of Batrachia and Reptilia of Illinois. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 1(3):25–32
1906 Hartman, Frank A. Food habits of Kansas lizards and batrachians. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 20():225-229
1928 Ortenburger, Arthur I. The whip snakes and racers: Genera Masticophis and Coluber. Memiors of the University of Michigan Museum (1):1-247
1928 Gloyd, Howard K. The amphibians and reptiles of Franklin County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 31():115-141
1931 Frost, Nancy. A comparative study of the urogenital systems of forty-two species of North American anurans. Thesis. University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. 76pp.
Utilized specimens of Lithobates areolatus from Franklin County and Anaxyrus cognatus from Rush County.
1932 Mansfield, Robert R. A Comparative study of the Helminthes of the Anura from five given localities. Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 35pp.
1933 Smith, Hobart M. The Amphibians of Kansas Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 383pp.
The first full accounting of the twenty-five species of amphibians known to occur in Kansas. Includes Ambystoma maculatum which is currently not included in the Kansas faunal list.
1934 Smith, Hobart M. The Amphibians of Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 15(4):377-527
The formal publication of Hobart Smith's Master's Thesis (Smith 1933), though there are several updated and additions. In addition to the species accounts for all twenty-five species, the paper includes a history of amphibian biology in Kansas and discussions on taxonomy and physiography. 
1936 Brumwell, Malcolm J. Distributional records of the reptilia and amphibians of Kansas. Privately printed, . 22pp.
County dot maps of the Kansas herpetofauna. This work has been attributed to have been written around 1933, but that may be in error. 
Hypsiglena jani was not known from Kansas until Claude W. Hibbard collected three specimens on the Stevenson Ranch in north-central Clark County (above Clark State Lake) during June 1936 (Hibbard, 1937). Brumwell plotted this locality, which leads me to believe that the 1936 would have been the earliest date this manuscript could have been written.
1937 Youngstrom, Karl A. Studies on developing behavior in anuran larvae and tadpoles. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 118pp.
1940 Goin, Coleman J. and M. Graham Netting. A new gopher frog from the Gulf Coast, with comments upon the Rana areolata group. Annals of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History 28(28):137-168
1943 Bailey, Reeve M. Four species new to the Iowa herpetofauna, with notes on their natural histories. Iowa Academy of Science 50():347-352
1947 Hall, Henry H. and Hobart M. Smith. Selected records of reptiles and amphibians from southeastern Kansas Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 49(4):447-454
Report on certain Kansas specimens housed in the collection at what is now Pittsburg State University. Included are several species of dubious status today, including Cryptobranchus alleganiensis from the Neosho and Spring rivers (the only specimens from those significant drainages ever documented), Ambystoma maculatum from just north of Pittsburg, Crawford County, Heterodon nasicus from Crawford County, Opheodrys vernalis from Crawford County, Sonora episcopa from Crawford County, Agkistrodon piscivorus from Cherokee County, Crotalus atrox from Crawford County, and Crotalus viridis from Crawford County. They report several significant range extensions including Kinosternon flavescens from Turkey Creek in southeast Cherokee County, Graptemys geographica from just north of Pittsburg, Crotaphytus collaris from near Columbus, Cherokee County, Sceloporus consobrinus from just north of Pittsburg, Phrynosoma cornutum from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Heterodon platirhinos from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Haldea striatula from Crawford County, Sistrurus tergeminus from Crawford County, and a 402 lb Macrochelys temminckii in Cherokee County from just east of Chetopa (Labette County). They allude to the potential for Anaxyrus fowleri to occur in southeast Kansas and for native populations of Crotalus atrox in south central Kansas (in part from the disclosure that John R. Breukelman [then of ESU] had obtained three specimens in Woods County Oklahoma, 3/4 of a mile south of the Kansas line). None of the specimens the paper was based on, exist today.
1948 Smith, Hobart M., C. W. Nixon, and P. E. Smith. A partial description of the tadpole of Rana areolata circulosa and notes on the natural history of the race. American Midland Naturalist 39():608-614
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
The first modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table and text say 97 on p. 10) and 13 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies.
1953 Schmidt, Karl P. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 280pp.
Schmidt's first edition of his standardized checklist to North American amphibians and reptiles. Includes several specific references to Kansas in the range descriptions.
1953 Sanders, Ottys. A new species of toad, with a discussion of morphology of the bufonid skull. Herpetologica 9(1):25-47
1953 Sanders, Ottys. A new species of toad, with a discussion of morphology of the bufonid skull. Herpetologica 9(1):25-47
1953 Sanders, Ottys. A new species of toad, with a discussion of morphology of the bufonid skull. Herpetologica 9(1):25-47
1953 Sanders, Ottys. A new species of toad, with a discussion of morphology of the bufonid skull. Herpetologica 9(1):25-47
1953 Bragg, Arthur N. A study of Rana areolata in Oklahoma. Wasmann Journal of Biology 11(3):273-318
1956 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. Second edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (9):1-356
Hobart M. Smith's updated second edition of his first (1950) modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table says 97 on p. 10; text says 98 on p. 10) and 11 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies. The second edition has updated taxonomy, added Plestiodon laticeps, and removed Eurycea tynerensis.
1956 Loomis, Richard B. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 37():1195-1443
Examined 2,628 Kansas reptiles of 48 species consisting of 27 turtles of 4 species, 1,736 lizards of 12 species and 892 snakes of 32 species for chiggers. Eleven species of chiggers were recovered from reptiles.
For amphibians, 1188 individuals of 21 species were examined. Five species of chigger mite were recovered from amphibians.
1958 Clarke, Robert F., John Breukelman, and T. F. Andrews. An annotated check list of the vertebrates of Lyon County, Kansas Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 62(2):165-195
1959 Collins, H. H. Complete Field Guide to American Wildlife. Harper and Brothers, New York. pp.
1965 Schroeder, Eugene. E. and Thomas. S. Baskett. Frogs and Toads of Missouri. Missouri Conservationist ():11
1967 Choate, Jerry R. Wildlife in the Wakarusa Watershed of Northeastern Kansas. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 46pp.
1967 Gier, Herschel T. Vertebrates of the Flint Hills. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 70(1):51-59
1968 Wilson, Richard L. Systematics and faunal analysis of a Lower Pliocene vertebrate assemblage from Trego County, Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 22():75-126
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
Joseph T. Collins first Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Smith 1956)>
1974 Platt, Dwight R., Joseph T. Collins, and Ray E. Ashton, Jr. Rare, endangered and extirpated species in Kansas. II. Amphibians and reptiles. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 76(3):185-192
The initial initiative to determine population and conservation status of Kansas' amphibians and reptiles based on our understanding at the time. A lot has changed regarding our increased knowledge on all the listed species.
1975 Collins, Joseph T. and Mary E. Dawson. Crawfish Frog re-discovered in Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (7):
1975 Holman, J. Alan. Herpetofauna of the WaKeeney local fauna (Lower Pliocene: Clarendionian) of Trego County, Kansas. Pages 49-66 in Studies on Cenozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphy in honor of Claude W. Hibbard. Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. pp.
1976 Rundquist, Eric M. Field checklist (of) amphibians and reptiles of Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Caldwell, Janalee P. and Gregory. Glass. Vertebrates of the Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Pages 62-76 in Preliminary inventory of the biota of Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Report No. 5. State Biological Survey of Kansas, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Ashton, Ray E., Jr., Stephen R. Edwards, and George R. Pisani. Endangered and threatened amphibians and reptiles in the United States. Herpetological Circulars (5):65
1977 Rundquist, Eric M. and Joseph T. Collins. The amphibians of Cherokee County, Kansas. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 12pp.
1977 Caldwell, Janalee P. and Joseph T. Collins. New records of fishes, amphibians and reptiles in Kansas. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survey of Kansas (4):63-78
1977 Caldwell, Janalee P. Crawfish Frogs snore again in southeast Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (17):7
1977 Perry, Janice. Kansas herps needed. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (18):2-3
List of Kansas amphibians and reptiles desired for the SSAR/HL meeting to be held 7-13 August 1977.
1978 Scheve, Karin. Your Guide to Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants in the Lake Region Counties. Ottawa University Print Center, Ottawa, Kansas. 18pp.
1979 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1978. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 8():56-66
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Report to the Kansas Fish and Game Commission on the status of three amphibians in southeastern Kansas. Kansas Fish and Game Commission, Pratt. 57pp.
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
Joseph T. Collins second Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1974)>
1983 Altig, Ronald and Ren Lohefener. Rana areolata. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (324):1-4
1984 Brown, Kenneth L. Pomona: A plains village variant in eastern Kansas and western Missouri. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 519pp.
1984 Secor, Stephen M. and Charles C. Carpenter. Distribution maps of Oklahoma reptiles. Oklahoma Herpetological Society Special Publication (3):1-57
1984 Clarke, Robert F. Frogs and toads in Kansas. Kansas School Naturalist 30(3):1-15
1985 Collins, Joseph T. (Editor) Natural Kansas. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. pp.
1985 Wood, R. D. Critical habitats for endangered and threatened herps of Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (60):13-15
1986 Layher, William G., Ken L. Brunson, J.Schaefer, Marvin D. Schwilling, and R. D. Wood. Summary of nongame task force actions relative to developing three species lists: Species in Need of Conservation, Threatened, and Endangered. Kansas Fish and Game Commission, Pratt. 27pp.
1987 Von Achen, Pennie. Population status and habitat preference of the threatened Northern Crawfish frog in Baker University Wetlands. Kansas Fish and Game Commission, Pratt. 14pp.
1987 Von Achen, Pennie. Population status and habitat preference of the threatened Northern Crawfish Frog in the Baker University wetlands. ():3
1988 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1987. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (71):13-19
1988 Busby, William H. The Kansas Natural Heritage Program: Taking stock of Kansas' natural heritage. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (71):9-12
1988 Boyd, R. L. Baker University natural areas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 91():52-54
1989 Simmons, John E. Endangered and threatened in Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (75):4-5
1989 Capron, Marty B. Threatened and endangered: A critique of the Kansas list. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (76):14-15
1989 Brunson, Ken. More on the Kansas endangered and threatened species list. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (77):17-19
1990 Busby, William H. An inventory of three prairie animals in eastern Kansas. Report 45. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 34pp.
1990 Atkinson, John H. Final Regulatory Report and Environmental Impact Statement: Commercial dredging activities on the Kansas River, Kansas. US Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District. 368pp.
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Maximum size records for Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):13-17
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1991 Boyd, R. Baker University wetlands. Pages 106-125 in Multidisciplinary Guidebook 4, Kansas Academy of Science, Lawrence. pp.
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Observations on Kansas amphibians and reptiles Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (88):13-15
1992 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas endangered, threatened, and SINC species. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (91):
1992 Taggart, Travis W. KHS field trips. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (91):3
1993 Freeman, Craig C. and William H. Busby. A survey for endangered and threatened species on the Sunflower Army Ammunition Plant, Johnson County, Kansas. Report No. 54. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 115pp.
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
Joseph T. Collins third Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1982)>
1994 Collins, Joseph T. Specific bibliographies for fifteen kinds of amphibians and reptiles that may occur in the Neosho River drainage. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. 134pp.
1994 Rundquist, Eric M. 1994 Field Trip Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (95):3-4
1995 Moriarty, Emily C. and Joseph T. Collins. First known occurrence of amphibian species in Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (100):28-30
1995 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the seventh annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (101):11-17
1996 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (103):13-15
1996 Rakestraw, J. Spring herp counts: A Kansas tradition. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (March-April):75-80
1997 Busby, William H. and William R. Brecheisen. Chorusing phenology and habitat associations of the Crawfish Frog, Rana areolata Southwestern Naturalist 42(2):210-217
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1998 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians & Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 131pp.
1998 Gamble, Jerre. Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hartford, Kansas. 91pp.
1999 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas Herpetological Society herp counts: A 10 year summary and evaluation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (115):42962
2002 Kingsbury, Bruce and Joanna Gibson. Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Midwest. Publication of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, Address not given. 152pp.
2002 Riedle, J. Daren and A. Hynek. Amphibian and reptile inventory of the Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, Labette County, Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (2):18-20
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2003 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):3-4
2003 Burr, Andrew and Calley Burr. Geographic distribution: Rana areolata. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):8
2003 Burr, Andrew. Coffey County herp count 1. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):7
2004 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians, turtles, and reptiles in Kansas for 2003. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (9):8-11
2005 Schmidt, Curtis J., Daniel Murrow, and Travis W. Taggart. Geographic distribution: Rana areolata. Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology ():
2005 Lannoo, Michael (Editor) Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species. University fo California Press, Berkeley. 1115pp.
2005 Brunson, Ken. Kansas species in need of conservation (SINC). Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 71pp.
2005 Schmidt, Curtis J., Dan Murrow, and Travis W. Taggart Geographic distribution: Rana areolata. Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (14):11
2005 Taggart, Travis W. and Curtis J. Schmidt. Geographic distribution: Rana areolata (Chautauqua County, Kansas). Journal of Kansas Herpetology (14):11
2005 Taggart, Travis W. and Curtis J. Schmidt. Geographic distribution: Rana areolata (Montgomery County, Kansas). Journal of Kansas Herpetology (14):11
2005 Richter, Stephen C. and Richard E. Broughton. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci for the endangered dusky gopher frog, Rana sevosa, and two closely related species, Rana capito and Rana areolata. Molecular Ecology Notes 5():436-438
2005 Hillis, David M. and Thomas P. Wilcox. Phylogeny of the New World True Frogs (Rana) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34(2):299-314
2006 Altig, Ronald, Roy W. McDiarmid, Kimberly A. Nichols, and Paul C. Ustach. Tadpoles of the United States and Canada: A Tutorial and Key Electronic files accessible at http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/tadpole/. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA. ():
2006 Bartlett, Richard D. and Patricia P. Bartlett. Guide and Reference to the Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America (North of Mexico). University Press of Florida, Gainesville. pp.
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2006 Welch, Derek and Curtis J. Schmidt. A world record Crawfish Frog Journal of Kansas Herpetology (17):7
2006 Frost, Darrel R, Taran Grant, Julian Faivovich, Raoul H. Bain, Alexander Haas, Celio F. B. Haddad, Rafael O. De Sa, Alan Channing, Mark Wilkinson, Stephen C. Donnellan, Christopher J. Raxworthy, Jonathan A. Campbell, Boris L. Blotto, Paul Moler, Robert C. Drewes, Ronald A. Nussbaum, John D. Lynch, David M. Green, and Ward C. Wheeler. The amphibian tree of life Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (297):370
2006 Anderson, Lewis R. and Joseph A. Arruda. Land use and anuran biodiversity in southeast Kansas, USA. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 4(1):46-59
2006 Tweet, F. and L. Tweet. A Crawfish Frog from Crawford County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology 17():6
2008 Industrial Economics, Incorporated. Cherokee County: Restoration Plan / Environmental Assessment. Prepared for: US Department of the Interior, US Fish and Wildlife Service. Industrial Economics, Incorporated, Cambridge, MA. 138pp.
2008 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2008 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (25):2-3
2008 Taggart, Travis W. Geographic distribution. Lithobates areolatus (Crawfish Frog). Journal of Kansas Herpetology (26):6
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
Joseph T. Collins fourth Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1993)>
2010 Murrow, Daniel G. Kansas Herpetological Society spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (33):2-3
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 spring field trip to beheld in Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (37):5-7
2012 Rohweder, Megan R. Spatial conservation prioritization of Kansas for terrestrial vertebrates. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 151pp.
2012 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada: Second Edition, Revised and Updated. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 152pp.
2012 Williams, Perry J., Joseph R. Robb, and Daryl R. Karns. Habitat selection by Crawfish Frogs (Lithobates areolatus) in a large mixed grassland/forest habitat. Journal of Herpetology 46(4):682-688
2012 Heemeyer, Jennifer L. and Michael J. Lannoo. Breeding migrations in Crawfish Frogs (Lithobates areolatus): Long-distance movements, burrow philopatry, and mortality in a near-threatened species. Copeia 2012(3):440-450
2013 Dodd, C. Kenneth. Frogs of the United States and Canada. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 982pp.
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Spring Field Trip to Bourbon County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):3
2014 Palis, John G. Googling Crawfish Frogs: Using satellite imagery and auditory surveys to locate breeding sites of a near-threatened species in southernmost Illinois. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 49(5):57-60
2015 Rohweder, Megan R. Kansas Wildlife Action Plan. Ecological Services Section, Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism in cooperation with the Kansas Biological Survey. 176pp.
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
2017 Taggart, Travis W. and J. Daren Riedle. A Pocket Guide to Kansas Amphibians, Turtles and Lizards. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, Kansas. 69pp.
2017 Crother, Brian I. (editor) Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Eighth edition. Herpetological Circulars (43):102
2019 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada. Third Edition. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 192pp.
2019 Goldberg, Stephen R. Notes on reproduction of the Crawfish Frogs, Lithobates areolatus (Anura: Ranidae), from Oklahoma. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 54(9):181-183
2020 Daniel, Richard E. and Brian S. Edmond. Atlas of Missouri Amphibians and Reptiles for 2019. Privately printed, Columbia, Missouri. 86pp.
2020 Riedle, J. Daren. Revisiting Kansas Herpetological Society field trip and Herp Count data: Distributional patterns and trend data of Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Collinsorum 9(1):7-16
2022 Buckardt, Emma M. Amphibian Occupancy and Diversity on a Post-mined Landscape. Thesis. Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, Kansas. 93pp.
2023 Dodd, C. Kenneth. Frogs of the United States and Canada. Second Edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 1032pp.
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Travis W. Taggart © 1999-2024 — w/ Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University