An adult Western Narrow-mouthed Toad from Pottawatomie County, Kansas (iNat: 117025788). Image by iNat user Anna Olderbak (annachromatic).
An adult Western Narrow-mouthed Toad from Jefferson County, Kansas (iNat: 35393014). Image by iNat user Robert Flanagan (experiencinglife).
An adult Western Narrow-mouthed Toad from Pottawatomie County, Kansas (iNat: 907243). Image by iNat user Michael Tobler (tobler).
A tadpole of Gastrophryne olivacea. Image © Altig et al. (2006).
AMPHIBIA (Amphibians) ANURA (Frogs) MICROHYLIDAE (Micohylid Frogs and Toads)

Western Narrow-mouthed Toad
Gastrophryne olivacea (Hallowell, 1856)
găs-trō-frī'-nē — ŏl-ī-vā-sē-ŭh


Conservation Status:

State: None

Federal: None
NatureServe State: S5 - Secure
NatureServe National: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Global: G5 - Secure
CITES: None
Diagnosis:
The Western Narrowmouth Toad is characterized by moist skin, a fold of skin across the back of the head behind the eyes, a very pointed snout and small head compared to the rest of its body, a white, unspotted belly, and a distinct color. The head, body, and limbs are uniform gray or light tan. The belly is whitish. Females grow larger than males, and males have blackish throats. The toes are not webbed.
Adults are normally 22-38 mm (7⁄8-1½ inches) in snout-vent length. The largest Kansas specimen is a female (FHSM 9099) from Lincoln County with a snout-vent length of 43 mm (1­5⁄8 inches) collected by Curtis J. Schmidt and Richard Hayes on 13 July 2004. This is the maximum reported length throughout the range.

Distribution:
Known from the eastern three-fourths of the state, apparently avoiding much of the Western Plains. The record for Hamilton County (UIMNH 62332, from 1955) is in need of corroboration, although it is somewhat supported by specimens just to the west into Colorado. Specimens from the vicinity of the Cimarron River in southeastern Colorado (Hammerson, 1999) indicate that this species may be more widespread in southwest Kansas than is currently known.
(,   Museum Voucher) (,   Observation) (,   Literature Record) (,   iNat Record), (  Fossil)
Open icons are questionable records; Click on a marker to view details.
Full range depicted by light shaded red area. Export Google Earth (.kml)
  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 1,516
    Records 
  • 1,391
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 125
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):
Allen (3); Anderson (46); Atchison (2); Barber (22); Barton (5); Bourbon (8); Butler (15); Chase (46); Chautauqua (52); Cherokee (8); Clark (8); Clay (7); Cloud (2); Comanche (12); Cowley (21); Crawford (1); Dickinson (10); Doniphan (5); Douglas (321); Edwards (1); Elk (23); Ellis (58); Ellsworth (13); Finney (11); Ford (2); Franklin (11); Geary (16); Greenwood (21); Hamilton (1); Harper (10); Harvey (2); Hodgeman (1); Jackson (3); Jefferson (46); Jewell (9); Johnson (9); Kiowa (3); Labette (8); Lane (3); Leavenworth (15); Lincoln (5); Linn (1); Lyon (1); Marion (3); Marshall (30); McPherson (8); Meade (5); Miami (2); Mitchell (1); Montgomery (13); Morris (4); Neosho (7); Ness (1); Osage (1); Osborne (9); Ottawa (1); Pawnee (2); Pottawatomie (49); Pratt (3); Reno (4); Republic (3); Rice (2); Riley (130); Rooks (4); Rush (25); Russell (115); Saline (19); Sedgwick (21); Seward (1); Shawnee (14); Smith (4); Sumner (17); Trego (7); Unknown (6); Wabaunsee (106); Washington (10); Wilson (7); Woodson (11); Wyandotte (4);

Fossil History:
Not known from Kansas.

Natural History:
This small amphibian is commonly found beneath rocks on open grassy slopes in April. In his intensive study of this amphibian in northeastern Kansas, Fitch (1956) found that it preferred a dry, rocky upland area in open woods or woodland edge but reported that it was tolerant of a wide variety of habitats, including river floodplains and cultivated fields. During early March in Ellis County, Travis Taggart (pers. comm., 1992; Collins 1993) found 20 examples of this toad beneath a large flat limestone rock situated vertically against a shale embankment devoid of vegetation. Where surface rocks are not available to hide under, this species may use rodent burrows. This frog is very secretive and spends most of its life beneath the ground. It is much less tolerant of cold temperatures than other amphibians in Kansas, and its activity season (April to early October) is shorter than that of some Kansas reptiles. The Western Narrowmouth Toad is nocturnal, preferring to emerge from beneath the ground on humid or rainy nights when air temperatures are between 62° and 77°F. Freiburg (1951), working in the same region as Fitch, described the preferred habitat of this species as being beneath flat limestone rocks which have good drainage, loose soil, and few twigs or leaves.
Fitch (1956) reported that the Western Narrowmouth Toad is an opportunistic breeder. Sufficient rainfall and temperatures between May and August will initiate breeding. Males may engage in breeding at least twice in one season. After rain, these small amphibians migrate to temporary pools and the males begin to chorus, normally at night. Their call sounds like the metallic bleat of a sheep and lasts 1-5 seconds.
Caldwell and Glass (1977) reported a chorus of 15 -20 males of this amphibian at temporary pools in Woodson County on 24 June. Collins (1993) recorded a chorus of the Western Narrowmouth Toad around a lake in Barber County on 11 May. Heinrich and Kaufman (1985) heard a chorus of about 25 male frogs at the Konza Prairie near Manhattan on 10 June.
The male mounts a female and clasps her behind the front legs with his forelimbs. Egg-laying occurs a day or two after the frogs have reached the breeding pool. A single female may produce up to 600 eggs, which hatch in two days. The free-swimming tadpoles metamorphose into adults in 20- 30 days and disperse from the breeding site at the first rainfall. Caldwell and Glass (1977) observed tiny tadpoles of this species on 24 June in Woodson County. They returned to the same site on 20 July and found tadpoles nearing metamorphosis. Sexual maturity is reached within one or two years.
The Western Narrowmouth Toad feeds almost exclusively on ants. Tanner (1950) found only ant remains in excrement from this species collected in Riley, Douglas, Geary, and Pottawatomie counties. Brumwell (1951) found only ants in the stomachs of twelve of these amphibians in Leavenworth County. Freiburg (1951) examined the stomachs of 52 specimens from Douglas County and found mostly ants plus some beetle fragments.
Freiburg (1951) list several associates found under rocks and logs with Western Narrow-mouthed Toads, including many invertebrates and the following amphibians and reptiles: Great Plains Skink (Plestiodon obsoletus), Common Five-lined Skink (Plestiodon fasciatus), Blanchard's Cricket Frog (Acris crepitans), American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus), and Plains Leopard Frog (Lithobates blairi). Where they co-occur in south-central Kansas (Montgomery/Wilson counties west to Clark County), with Texas Brown Tarantulas (Aphonopelma hentzi), these two seemingly unlikely associates are often found together under large rocks.
Freiburg (1951) reported predation on a Western Narrow-mouthed Toad by a young Eastern Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix). Fitch (1956) reported predation on this species in Kansas by shrews, Bullfrogs, Leopard Frogs, and young Copperheads. Taggart (1992) observed predation of a Western Narrowmouth Toad by a Western Ribbon Snake in Chase County.

Occurrence Activity:
Number of Unique Obervations (=days): 162; Range: 15 Mar to 07 Nov
Chorusing:

Audio recording by Keith Coleman.

Chorusing Phenology: The black outlined dots denote the Julian date (day of the year; 1 January = 1 to 31 December = 365) an observation was made. The thin red line depicts the range of dates between the beginning of the first, and end of the fourth quartile (excluding outliers; Tukey method). The thick light blue bar represents the second and third quartile (interquartile range; the middle 50% of all observations). Only one observation per Julian date is included in the graphs; so a date with multiple observations carries the same weight as a date with only one observation. The vertical bars correspond to the 12 months of the year; January through December.
Number of Unique Obervations: 95; Range: 07 Apr to 31 Jul; Interquartile range: 02 Jun to 01 Jul;

Remarks:
First reported from Kansas in the original description by American herpetologist and physician Edward Hallowell in 1856. The type locality was taken from the title of the article as "Kansas and Nebraska". The specimen the description was based on was collected by William A. Hammond, a military physician stationed at Fort Riley (Geary/Riley County). The Western Narrow-mouthed Toad enters Nebraska along the Blue and Republican rivers, but in neither instance has it been found more than eight miles into the state. Smith and Taylor (1950) restricted the type locality to Fort Riley, Geary County, Kansas. Restricted type localities carry no weight in nomenclatural priority. The earliest extant specimen (KU 9904) was collected near Hackberry Creek at Oswego, Labette County, on 9 July 1915.
The Western Narrow-mouthed Toad is most readily observed while it is chorusing during late spring and into summer. Over most of its range in Kansas, its bleating call is easily distinguished from other frogs. However, unlike other species of Kansas frogs, both the Western and Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toads are commonly turned up under rocks in April and May.

Bibliography:
1856 Hallowell, Edward. Notice of a collection of reptiles from Kansas and Nebraska presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences, by Doctor Hammond, U. S. A. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 8():238-253
Contains reference to twenty-four species collected from 'Kansas', and includes the original description of Microps lineatus (=Tropidoclonion lineatum) from Kansas on page 241.
1880 Cragin, Francis W. A preliminary catalogue of Kansas reptiles and batrachians Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 7():112-123
Also listed the Scarlet Snake (Cemophora coccinea) [=Ophibolus doliatus var. coccineus] and Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) [=Spelerpes ruber] from Kansas.
1927 Burt, Charles E. An annotated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Riley County, Kansas. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (189):12
Accounts on forty species known from the vicinity of Manhattan, Riley County, Kansas. There have been several scientific names changes since publication, which is understandable... however, some usages cannot be explained by subsequent taxonomic reappraisals(e.g.  Gastrophryne carolinensis for Gastrophryne olivacea). The writer lists Eumeces (=Plestiodon) obsoletus and E. guttulatus yet correctly reasoning that the latter is the young of the former. Within the account of Tantilla gracilis (a common form) the writer mentions that T. nigriceps was reported from Riley County by Branson (1904) but that the specimens at Kansas State were absent at the time of publication. The Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) was first reported from Riley County by Branson (1904) and is reported by the writer based on a specimen in the museum at Kansas State University by Professor E. A. Popenoe. The Prairie Rattlesnake is not currently native to Riley County, and closest reliable localities are 150 to the west.
1927 Linsdale, Jean M. Amphibians and reptiles of Doniphan County, Kansas. Copeia 1927(164):75-81
1928 Ortenburger, Arthur I. The whip snakes and racers: Genera Masticophis and Coluber. Memiors of the University of Michigan Museum (1):1-247
1933 Stejneger, Leonhard and Thomas Barbour. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 3rd Edition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. pp.
Reference to Kansas is the listed range of several species.
1933 Smith, Hobart M. The Amphibians of Kansas Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 383pp.
The first full accounting of the twenty-five species of amphibians known to occur in Kansas. Includes Ambystoma maculatum which is currently not included in the Kansas faunal list.
1933 Smith, Hobart M. On the proper name for the brevicipetid frog Gastrophryne texensis (Girard) . Copeia 1933(4):217
1934 Smith, Hobart M. The Amphibians of Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 15(4):377-527
The formal publication of Hobart Smith's Master's Thesis (Smith 1933), though there are several updated and additions. In addition to the species accounts for all twenty-five species, the paper includes a history of amphibian biology in Kansas and discussions on taxonomy and physiography. 
1934 Brennan, Lawrence A. A check list of the amphibians and reptiles of Ellis County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():189-191
1935 Brennan, Lawrence A. Notes on the Distribution of Amphibia and Reptilia of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 114pp.
1936 Brumwell, Malcolm J. Distributional records of the reptilia and amphibians of Kansas. Privately printed, . 22pp.
County dot maps of the Kansas herpetofauna. This work has been attributed to have been written around 1933, but that may be in error. 
Hypsiglena jani was not known from Kansas until Claude W. Hibbard collected three specimens on the Stevenson Ranch in north-central Clark County (above Clark State Lake) during June 1936 (Hibbard, 1937). Brumwell plotted this locality, which leads me to believe that the 1936 would have been the earliest date this manuscript could have been written.
1937 Youngstrom, Karl A. Studies on developing behavior in anuran larvae and tadpoles. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 118pp.
1937 Brennan, Lawrence A. A study of the habitat of reptiles and amphibians of Ellis County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 40():341-347
1939 Tihen, Joseph A. and James M. Sprague. Amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of the Meade County State Park Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 42():499-512
1942 Anderson, Paul. Amphibians and reptiles of Jackson County, Missouri. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 6(11):203-222
1946 Hecht, Max K. and Bessie L. Matalas. A review of middle North American toads of the genus Microhyla. American Museum Novitates (1315):1-21
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
The first modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table and text say 97 on p. 10) and 13 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies.
1950 Tanner, Wilmer W. Notes on the habits of Microhyla carolinensis olivacea (Hallowell). Herpetologica 6(2):47-48
1950 Smith, Hobart M. and Edward H. Taylor. Type localities of Mexican reptiles and amphibians. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 23 Pt II(8):313-380
1951 Brumwell, Malcolm J. An ecological survey of the Fort Leavenworth Military Reservation American Midland Naturalist 45(1):187-231
Published posthumously. Lieutenant Brumwell died December 14, 1941, as a result of injuries incurred during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. This paper is a condensed version of his thesis for the Master's degree.
1951 Freiburg, Richard E. An ecological study of the narrow-mouthed toad (Microhyla) in northeastern Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 54(3):374-386
1953 Schmidt, Karl P. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 280pp.
Schmidt's first edition of his standardized checklist to North American amphibians and reptiles. Includes several specific references to Kansas in the range descriptions.
1956 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. Second edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (9):1-356
Hobart M. Smith's updated second edition of his first (1950) modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table says 97 on p. 10; text says 98 on p. 10) and 11 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies. The second edition has updated taxonomy, added Plestiodon laticeps, and removed Eurycea tynerensis.
1956 Fitch, Henry S. A field study of the Kansas ant-eating frog, Gastrophryne olivacea. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History 8(4):275-306
1956 Fitch, Henry S. Early sexual maturity and longevity under natural conditions in the Great Plains narrow-mouthed frog. Herpetologica 12():281-282
1956 Loomis, Richard B. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 37():1195-1443
Examined 2,628 Kansas reptiles of 48 species consisting of 27 turtles of 4 species, 1,736 lizards of 12 species and 892 snakes of 32 species for chiggers. Eleven species of chiggers were recovered from reptiles.
For amphibians, 1188 individuals of 21 species were examined. Five species of chigger mite were recovered from amphibians.
1962 Gish, Charles D. The Herpetofauna of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 34pp.
1967 Choate, Jerry R. Wildlife in the Wakarusa Watershed of Northeastern Kansas. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 46pp.
1967 Gier, Herschel T. Vertebrates of the Flint Hills. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 70(1):51-59
1972 Nelson, Craig E. Gastrophryne olivacea. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (122):1-4
1972 Nelson, Craig E. Systematic studies of the North American microhylid genus Gastrophryne. Journal of Herpetology 6(2):111-137
1973 Nelson, Craig E. Gastrophryne. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (134):1-2
1973 Nelson, Craig E. Mating calls of the Microhylinae: Descriptions and phylogenetic and ecological considerations. Herpetologica 29(2):163-176
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
Joseph T. Collins first Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Smith 1956)>
1974 Karns, Daryl, Ray E. Ashton, Jr., and Thomas Swearingen. Illustrated Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas: An Identification Manual. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History Public Education Series(2):viii + 18
1976 Rundquist, Eric M. Field checklist (of) amphibians and reptiles of Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Caldwell, Janalee P. and Gregory. Glass. Vertebrates of the Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Pages 62-76 in Preliminary inventory of the biota of Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Report No. 5. State Biological Survey of Kansas, Lawrence. pp.
1977 Rundquist, Eric M. and Joseph T. Collins. The amphibians of Cherokee County, Kansas. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 12pp.
1977 Perry, Janice. Kansas herps needed. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (18):2-3
List of Kansas amphibians and reptiles desired for the SSAR/HL meeting to be held 7-13 August 1977.
1977 Perry, Janice. KHS members achieve goal: Get Cottonmouth. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (21):3-4
1978 Warner, M. and R. Wencel. Chikaskia River study held near Caldwell. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (25):15-16
1978 Collins, Joseph T. and Janalee P. Caldwell. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1977. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 6():70-88
1979 Guarisco, Hank. Preliminary laboratory observations of predation by native Texas Garter Snakes upon hatchling Five-lined Skinks. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (32):7-8
1979 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1978. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 8():56-66
1979 Collins, Joseph T. Geographic distribution: Gastrophryne olivacea. Herpetological Review 10(3):101
1980 Clarke, Robert F. Herptiles and fishes of the western Arkansas River in Kansas. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 55pp.
A summary of known information on the amphibian, reptile, and fish faunas of the Arkansas River above Great Bend. The report details associated field activities for procuring fish, however no new surveys for amphibians and reptiles were undertaken. Information on herps from Finney County was provided by Michael Rush (FHSU) and thus made available before the publication of his thesis (Rush, 1981). The western Arkansas River drainage had experienced little attention by herpetologists before this study, and the species accounts reflect that paucity of data. Additionally, the report omits several older records (e.g. for Anaxyrus debilisThamnophis cyrtopsis, and Lampropeltis calligaster) from the westernmost reaches of the Arkansas River drainage in Kansas.
1980 Spencer, Dwight. Spencer, D. 1980. Ross Natural History Reservation: the first twenty years, 1959 to 1979. Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas.. 64pp.
1980 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1979. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 9():1-11
1980 Glass, G. E., and N .A. Slade. The effect of Sigmodon hispidus on spatial and temporal activity of Microtus ochrogaster: Evidence for competition Ecology 61():358-370
1981 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1980. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 10():7-19
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Report to the Kansas Fish and Game Commission on the status of three amphibians in southeastern Kansas. Kansas Fish and Game Commission, Pratt. 57pp.
1982 Fitch, Henry S. Resources of a snake community in prairie-woodland habitat of northeastern Kansas. Pages 83-97 in Herpetological communities: A symposium of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles and the Herpetologists League, August 1977.  Wildlife Research Reports 12. 239 pp. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D. C. pp.
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
Joseph T. Collins second Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1974)>
1983 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1982 . Technical Publication of the State Biological Survey of Kansas 13():9-21
1984 Brown, Kenneth L. Pomona: A plains village variant in eastern Kansas and western Missouri. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 519pp.
1984 Heinrich, Mark L. Herpetofauna of the Konza Prairie Research Natural Area in the Flint Hills region of Kansas with respect to habitat selection. Thesis. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. 57pp.
1984 Secor, Stephen M. and Charles C. Carpenter. Distribution maps of Oklahoma reptiles. Oklahoma Herpetological Society Special Publication (3):1-57
1984 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1983. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (56):15-26
Invalidated the specimens of Thamnophis sirtalis from Hamilton County (reidentified as T. cyrtopsis; KU 2088) and Wallace County mapped in Collins, 1982.
1984 Schwarting, Nancy. KHS field trip, May 1984. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (57):3-4
1985 Miller, Larry L. KHS 1985 field trip to Kirwin Reservoir. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (61):11-12
1985 Lynch, John D. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Science 13():33-57
1986 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1985. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (63):4
1986 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1986. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (66):9-16
1988 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1987. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (71):13-19
1988 Capron, Marty B. Observations on box turtles, genus Terrapene, in captivity. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (72):17-19
1989 Collins, Joseph T. First Kansas herp counts held in 1989. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (77):11-
1989 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1989. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (78):16-21
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Results of second Kansas herp count held during April-May 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):10-12
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Maximum size records for Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):13-17
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1991 Fitch, Henry S. Reptiles and amphibians of the Kansas ecological reserves. Pages 71-74 in Ecology and Hydrology of Kansas Ecological Reserves and the Baker Wetlands. Multidisciplinary Guidebook 4. Kansas Academy of Science, Lawrence, Kansas. pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (83):7-13
1991 Collins, Joseph T. Results of third Kansas herp count held during April-May 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (85):9-13
1992 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (87):12-17
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Observations on Kansas amphibians and reptiles Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (88):13-15
1992 Collins, Joseph T. Results of the fourth Kansas herp count held during April-May 1992. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (89):10-
1992 Gubanyi, James E. An observation on the stomach contents of a Texas Longnose Snake (Rhinocheilus lecontei tessellatus). Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (89):17
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
Joseph T. Collins third Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1982)>
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the fifth Kansas herp count held during April-June 1993 . Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (94):7-11
1993 Viets, Brian E. An annotated list of the herpetofauna of the F. B., and Rena G. Ross Natural History Reservation. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 96(1/2):103-113
1994 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1993. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):15-19
1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):5-14
See, 1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Additions and corrections [to the results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994]. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):4.
1994 Riedle, J. Daren. A survey of reptiles and amphibians at Montgomery County State Fishing Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):11-13
1995 Moriarty, Emily C. and Joseph T. Collins. First known occurrence of amphibian species in Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (100):28-30
1995 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the seventh annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (101):11-17
1995 Rundquist, Eric M. Additional KHS herp counts for 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (102):11-
1996 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eighth annual KHS herp counts Held 1 April-31 May 1996. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (104):6-17
1996 Miller, Larry L. Many amphibian and reptile species identified during KHS 1996 fall field trip to Wabaunsee County. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (106):2-3
1996 Rakestraw, J. Spring herp counts: A Kansas tradition. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (March-April):75-80
1996 Stuart, James N. and Charles W. Painter. Natural history notes on the Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad, Gastrophryne olivacea, in New Mexico. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 31(3):44-47
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the ninth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1997. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (108):12-17
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1998 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians & Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 131pp.
1998 Gamble, Jerre. Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hartford, Kansas. 91pp.
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the tenth annual KHS herp counts for 1998, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (112):11-18
1999 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas Herpetological Society herp counts: A 10 year summary and evaluation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (115):42962
2000 Taggart, Travis W. KHS spring field trip sets record for attendance. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (120):5-5
2000 Van Doren, Mark D. and Curtis J. Schmidt. A herpetological survey of the Fort Larned National Historic Site, Pawnee County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (120):8-11
2000 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eleventh and twelfth annual KHS herpetofaunal counts for 1999-2000, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (122):11-16
2001 Taggart, Travis W. The KHS 2001 spring field trip: A rainy rendezvous. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (124):12-14
2001 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 2000. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (124):6-8
2001 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the thirteenth annual KHS herp counts for 2001, held 1 April-30 June. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):13-16
2002 Kingsbury, Bruce and Joanna Gibson. Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Midwest. Publication of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, Address not given. 152pp.
2002 Fogell, Daniel D. Occurrence and relative abundance of amphibians and reptiles at Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Homestead National Monument of America, and Pipestone National Monument within the Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network. Interim Report. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.. 6pp.
2002 Schmidt, Curtis J. and Travis W. Taggart. Geographic distribution: Gastrophryne olivacea. Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (2):10
2002 Riedle, J. Daren and A. Hynek. Amphibian and reptile inventory of the Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, Labette County, Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (2):18-20
2002 Ellis, Mark R. Fall 2002 KHS field trip to Washington County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (2):4-5
2002 Miller, Larry L. Sumner County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):15
2003 Fogell, Daniel D. A herpetofaunal inventory of Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Homestead National Monument of America, and Pipestone National Monument within the Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.. 59pp.
This is the version the author submitted to the NPS. Their final publication was modified.
2003 Suleiman, G. Fort Riley herpetofaunal count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):11-12
2003 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 2002. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):13-16
2003 Taggart, Travis W. KHS conducts first systematic road survey. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):11-12
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2003 KHS spring field trip to Wilson County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):2-5
2003 Miller, Larry L. Sumner County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):10
2003 Volkmann, Al. Cowley County herp count 1. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):7
2003 Lokke, John L. and Jill Lokke. Cowley County herp count 2. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):8
2003 Suleiman, Gibran. Fort Riley herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):9
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2003 fall field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (8):14-15
2004 Delisle, Jennifer M. and William H. Busby. Biological inventory for vertebrates at Fort Larned National Historic Site of the southern plains network. Natural Heritage Inventory, Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 61pp.
2004 Volkmann, Al. Cowley County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):10
2004 Miller, Larry L. Sumner County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):11-12
2004 Schmidt, Curtis J. and Richard Hayes. Life history. Gastrotrophryne olivacea. New state maximum length. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):15
2004 Schmidt, Curtis J. and Richard S. Hayes. Gastrophryne olivacea, (Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad), new state maximum size record Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):15
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2004 fall feld trip . Journal of Kansas Herpetology (12):15-16
2005 Lannoo, Michael (Editor) Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species. University fo California Press, Berkeley. 1115pp.
2005 Taggart, Travis W., Curtis J. Schmidt, and Richard S. Hayes. Geographic distribution: Gastrophryne olivacea. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (13):10
2006 Altig, Ronald, Roy W. McDiarmid, Kimberly A. Nichols, and Paul C. Ustach. Tadpoles of the United States and Canada: A Tutorial and Key Electronic files accessible at http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/tadpole/. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA. ():
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2006 Wilgers, Dustin J. and Eva A. Horne. Effects of different burn regimes on tallgrass prairie herpetofaunal species diversity and community composition in the Flint Hills, Kansas. Journal of Herpetology 40():73-84
2006 Wilgers, Dustin J., Eva A. Horne, Brett K. Sandercock, and Allan W. Volkmann. Effects of rangeland management on community dynamics of the herpetofauna of the tallgrass prairie. 62():378-388
2008 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2008 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (25):2-3
2008 Gomez, Nicholas J. Geographic distribution. Gastrophryne olivacea (Great Plains Narrow-mouth Toad). Journal of Kansas Herpetology (26):6
2008 Low, Brandon. Geographic distribution. Gastrophryne olivacea (Great Plains Narrow-mouth Toad). Journal of Kansas Herpetology (26):6
2009 Murrow, Daniel G. KHS 2009 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (29):42769
2010 Miller, Larry L. Investigation of the Checkered Garter Snake in Kansas with notes on other Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles encountered. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 31pp.
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
Joseph T. Collins fourth Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1993)>
2010 Murrow, Daniel G. Kansas Herpetological Society spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (33):2-3
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 spring field trip to beheld in Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (37):5-7
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS Spring Field Trip to Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (38):2-4
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 Fall Field Trip to Lovewell State Park Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):4-5
2011 Houck, Mike. Fort Riley Herpetofaunal Survey for 2011. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):9
2012 Rohweder, Megan R. Spatial conservation prioritization of Kansas for terrestrial vertebrates. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 151pp.
2012 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada: Second Edition, Revised and Updated. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 152pp.
2012 Streicher, Jeffrey W., Christian L. Cox , Jonathan A. Campbell , Eric N. Smith , Rafael O. de Sa. Rapid range expansion in the Great Plains Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea) and a revised taxonomy for North American microhylids. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 2012(64):645-653
2013 Bass, Neil. The Missouri River Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Project: For the river, for you, and for herps. Collinsorum 2(1/2):10-11
2013 Miller, Larry L. Wellington Lake Herpetological Survey. Collinsorum 2(1/2):12
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Spring Field Trip to Bourbon County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):3
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Fall Field Trip to Atchison County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):4
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Summer Field Trip to Coldwater Lake, Comanche County. Collinsorum 2(3/4):5
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Fall Field Trip to Butler County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):6
2014 McMartin, D. Chris. Fort Leavenworth Heretofaunal Survey for 2013. Collinsorum 3(1):10
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS Spring Field Trip to Barber County Collinsorum 3(2-4):11
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS Fall Field Trip to Woodson County. Collinsorum 3(2-4):12
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Recent scientific and standard English name changes effecting the Kansas herpetofauna. Collinsorum 3(2-4):9-10
2015 Mike Houck. 2015 Fort Riley Herpetofaunal Count final report. Collinsorum 4(1):10-11
2015 Bass, Neil. Herpetological (Frog and Turtle) Inventories along the Missouri River in Kansas. Collinsorum 4(1):5-9
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Spring Field Trip to the Greenhorn Limestone of Russell County. Collinsorum 4(3):2
2015 Taggart, Travis W. Fall Field Trip Held In Washington County. Collinsorum 4(3):4
2016 Pittman, Galen L., Henry S. Fitch, and W. Dean Kettle. Vertebrate animals on the Fitch Natural History Reservation (1948-2002) Kansas Biological Survey Report Number 188, Lawrence. 48pp.
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Spring 2016 KHS field trip to Clark County was a soggy success. Collinsorum 5(2-3):2-3
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS Summer field trip to Caney River, Chautauqua County, Kansas. Collinsorum 5(2-3):4-5
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS ‘Fall’ field trip to Barber County. Collinsorum 5(2-3):6-7
2017 Snyder, Ariel. Survey Of Anuran Chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in Kansas and the Influence of Anuran Life History in Occurrence. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 53pp.
2017 Taggart, Travis W. and J. Daren Riedle. A Pocket Guide to Kansas Amphibians, Turtles and Lizards. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, Kansas. 69pp.
2017 Crother, Brian I. (editor) Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Eighth edition. Herpetological Circulars (43):102
2017 Mardis, Dexter R. Results from three Herpetofaunal tallies at Wichita State University’s Youngmeyer Ranch in Northwestern Elk County. Collinsorum 6(1):8-10
2017 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2017 KHS Spring Field Trip to Elk County, Kansas. Collinsorum 6(2-3):6-8
2017 Schmidt, Curtis J. Herp Count: Southeast Ellis County. Collinsorum 6(2-3):9
2017 Taggart, Travis W. Herp Count: Northeast Barton County. Collinsorum 6(2-3):9
2018 Houck, Mike. Herp Count: Fort Riley Military Installation Collinsorum 7(1):17
2018 Goldberg, Stephen R. Notes on reproduction of Western Narrow-mouthed Toads, Gastrophryne olivacea (Anura: Microhylidae), from Texas. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 53(12):253-255
2019 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada. Third Edition. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 192pp.
2020 Daniel, Richard E. and Brian S. Edmond. Atlas of Missouri Amphibians and Reptiles for 2019. Privately printed, Columbia, Missouri. 86pp.
2020 Riedle, J. Daren. Revisiting Kansas Herpetological Society field trip and Herp Count data: Distributional patterns and trend data of Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Collinsorum 9(1):7-16
2021 Abbott, Samuel S. Herp Count: Cowley County: KHS-2020-06 Collinsorum 9(3):12
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Seward County: KHS-2020-13. Collinsorum 9(3):13
2021 Schmidt, Curtis J. Herp Count: Russell County: KHS-2020-16. Collinsorum 9(3):14
2021 Schmidt, Curtis J. Herp Count: Russell County: KHS-2020-19. Collinsorum 9(3):14
2023 Russell, Elisabeth Habitat associations and fine-scale movements of the Red-spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus) in Kansas and the efficacy of remote telemetry for monitoring small-scale movements. Thesis. Fort Hays STate University, Hays, Kansas. 81pp.
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Travis W. Taggart © 1999-2024 — w/ Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University