An adult American Toad from Coffey County, Kansas (iNat: 44451757). Image by iNat user Isaac Fox (@i_fox).
An adult American Toad from Coffey County, Kansas (iNat: 44451759). Image by iNat user Isaac Fox (@i_fox).
An adult American Toad from Coffey County, Kansas (iNat: 44451760). Image by iNat user Isaac Fox (@i_fox).
An adult American Toad from Cherokee County, Kansas (iNat: 78762194). Image by iNat user Jennifer Rader (@seknaturalist).
The unpatterned belly of an adult American Toad from Cherokee County, Kansas (iNat: 78762194). Image by iNat user Jennifer Rader (@seknaturalist).
An juvenile American Toad from Douglas County, Kansas (iNat: 79038321). Image by iNat user Thomas Koffel (@tkoffel).
An adult American Toad from Cherokee County, Kansas (iNat: 80173643). Image by iNat user Jennifer Rader (@seknaturalist).
An adult American Toad from Johnson County, Kansas (iNat: 132498070). Image by iNat user Nancy Holcroft Benson (@niholcroft).
A juvenile American Toad from Cherokee County, Kansas (iNat: 93167319). Image by iNat user Travis W. Taggart (@twtaggart).
An American Toad tadpoles from Johnson County, Kansas (iNat: 75949418). Image by iNat user (@lazyjedi).
American Toad egg strings, Chautauqua County. Image © Travis W. Taggart.
AMPHIBIA (Amphibians) ANURA (Frogs) BUFONIDAE (True Toads)

American Toad
Anaxyrus americanus (Holbrook 1836)
ăn-ăk-sĕr'-ōs — ă-mĕr-ĭ-cān'-ŭs


Conservation Status:

State: None

Federal: None
NatureServe State: S5 - Secure
NatureServe National: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Global: G5 - Secure
CITES: None
Diagnosis:
The American Toad is characterized by dry skin, a round snout, enlarged kidney-shaped glands on its neck behind each eye, bony crests between and behind the eyes, with those behind the eyes either not touching the enlarged, kidney-shaped gland or connected to it only by a small spur, and a dark-spotted belly (except some populations along the extreme southern border between Cherokee and Chautauqua counties).
The basic color of this toad can be gray, light brown, brown, or reddish brown, with dark gray or black spots on a white belly. The body may be covered with light patches and/ or dark brown or black spots. Frequently, there is a light stripe down the back. During the breeding season, males can be distinguished from females by a black throat and the presence of an enlarged, horny pad on the inner fingers of each hand. Females are generally larger than males.
The most common toad throughout most of eastern Kansas, but easily confused with the Woodhouse's Toad, with which it may occasionally hybridize. It can be distinguished from the Woodhouse's Toad (and Fowler's Toad) by having one (seldom more) warts per spot on the dorsal head, body, and legs and a profusely spotted belly (except in specimens from the extreme southern border [which are diminutive and reddish in color]). The spots are not paired.
Adults normally grow 50-90 mm (2-3½ inches) in snout-vent length. The largest Kansas specimen (sex undetermined) is (KU 211394) from Neosho County with a snout-vent length of 102 mm (4 inches) collected by Travis W. Taggart and R. Bruce Taggart on 14 September 1988. The maximum length throughout the range is 155 mm (6­1⁄8 inches inches) (Powell et al. 2016).

Distribution:
Found throughout much of the eastern third of the state, generally east of the Flint Hills.
A specimen from Trego County (FHSM 5857) has been examined and is characteristic of this taxon. It is not mapped as it undoubtedly represents an introduction, possibly from hatchery activities at Cedar Bluff.
Range-wide this species is found from Manitoba south to northeast Texas, east through northwest South Carolina, and north to Labrador and southwest Newfoundland. A small spur is found along the east side of the Mississippi River into southeastern Louisiana. It appears to be absent from southeast Illinois and southwest Indiana.
(,   Museum Voucher) (,   Observation) (,   Literature Record) (,   iNat Record), (  Fossil)
Open icons are questionable records; Click on a marker to view details.
Full range depicted by light shaded red area. Export Google Earth (.kml)
  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 2,196
    Records 
  • 1,389
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 807
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):
Allen (29); Anderson (13); Atchison (7); Bourbon (33); Brown (7); Butler (2); Chase (1); Chautauqua (127); Cherokee (543); Coffey (111); Cowley (12); Crawford (176); Doniphan (13); Douglas (285); Elk (32); Franklin (21); Graham (3); Greenwood (106); Jackson (1); Jefferson (16); Johnson (151); Labette (55); Leavenworth (43); Linn (33); Lyon (5); Marion (2); Miami (37); Montgomery (83); Morton (1); Nemaha (1); Neosho (39); Osage (70); Pottawatomie (1); Riley (3); Sedgwick (3); Shawnee (20); Trego (1); Unknown (13); Wabaunsee (20); Wilson (45); Woodson (9); Wyandotte (23);

Fossil History:
Miocene (Hemphillian NALMA) of Long Island, Kansas (Sanchiz, 1998) [Holman, 2003 states that this specimen likely represents an unidentified extinct taxon].

Natural History:
Fitch (1958) studied this toad in northeastern Kansas and gave the most complete information on its natural history. He reported that optimal habitat for this species is rocky situations in open woods or woodland edge, where the toads are found under large, flat rocks having loose, damp soil beneath them. They avoid open fields with dense vegetation and have a minimal home range of O. 16 acres. He noted that during periods of high humidity this species frequently wanders great distances. American Toads are active in late afternoon and at night, searching for food. During the day, they generally remain hidden. Clarke (1958) found this species active in Lyon County at air temperatures ranging from 58° to 85°F and considered its preferred habit to be Oak-Walnut hillside forests and open cultivated fields. Taggart (1992) found this toad active at night on 24 March in Allen County at an air temperature of 46°F. American Toads are active from March to October and bury themselves beneath the ground during the temperature extremes of winter and summer.
With the onset of spring rains, from March until early May, adult American Toads congregate at breeding sites, usually shallow upland streams or ponds, and begin to chorus. The male vigorously sings to attract a mate, and upon succeeding, mounts her back and clasps her body immediately behind the front legs with his front limbs, pressing his thumbs into her armpits. The two toads float in the pond, and the female lays eggs in a long, double string while the male releases sperm on them. A female may deposit from 2,800 to 20,500 eggs. The eggs quickly hatch and the tiny black tadpoles grow until they metamorphose into tiny toadlets that disperse from the pond within a week.
Fitch (1958), during six years of observations in northeastern Kansas, recorded choruses of this species from as early as 10 April until as late as 7 May, a time span somewhat later in spring than had been reported previously. He also determined that, in his study area, this toad has an optimal breeding air temperature of approximately 80-85°F. Other observations in Kansas indicate that this species will breed as early as mid-March, weather conditions permitting. Taggart (1992) found this toad chorusing at night on 2 April in Allen County at an air temperature of 52°F.
American Toads have a diet of beetles, crickets, leaf-hoppers, grasshoppers, spiders, and ants. This toad is undoubtedly beneficial to Kansas farmers due to the large quantity of insects it eats.
They are active at night during humid weather and remain hidden under rocks, logs, thatch, or shallow burrows during the day. During March and April rains, American Toads breed in semi-permanent ponds, ditches, and even tire ruts. The call is a long musical trill lasting 5 to 50 seconds. Eggs are laid in long strings. Outside of the breeding season, they can be found all over the eastern third of Kansas from forests to backyard gardens
They seek cover by day and search for prey at night. They can often be found congregating around lights in rural and residential areas to pick off insects as they land (Hartman 1906). He examined the contents of eleven toads from Wyandotte County and found they had consumed the following insects: Cincindelidae, ground-beetles, crickets, snapping-beetles, leaf-hoppers, ants, Belostoma, Lachnosterna, grasshoppers, tumblebugs, Lampyridae, and carrion beetles. One specimen contained sixty beetles, three leaf-hoppers, and three ants.

Occurrence Activity:
Number of Unique Obervations (=days): 209; Range: 23 Feb to 27 Nov
Chorusing:

Audio recording by Keith Coleman.

Chorusing Phenology: The black outlined dots denote the Julian date (day of the year; 1 January = 1 to 31 December = 365) an observation was made. The thin red line depicts the range of dates between the beginning of the first, and end of the fourth quartile (excluding outliers; Tukey method). The thick light blue bar represents the second and third quartile (interquartile range; the middle 50% of all observations). Only one observation per Julian date is included in the graphs; so a date with multiple observations carries the same weight as a date with only one observation. The vertical bars correspond to the 12 months of the year; January through December.
Number of Unique Obervations: 488; Range: 13 Mar to 07 Jul; Interquartile range: 10 Apr to 27 May;

Remarks:
First reported in Kansas by Hallowell (1857), however based on the description of the specimens on hand (two large individuals and several young [with red spots]) and that the specimens were sent by Fort Riley surgeon William H. Hammond, they are likely Woodhouse's Toads (Anaxyrus woodhousii). Cope (1880) also commented that ("Bufo lentiginosus Shaw., var. americanus Le Conte: Common Toad. Common at Manhattan and westward" and was likely confused with A. woodhousii. Yarrow (1882) listed two specimens from Kansas at the USNM (2533; "Little Blue River, Kan." by W. S. Wood) and (4543; "Fort Riley, Kans." by H. Brandt). Yarrow's list included specimens from Arizona, California, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Wyoming as well, those two from Kansas are likely A. woodhousii too. Neither of Yarrow's two listed specimens currently exist. The Cope (1889) treatment of the American Toad was identical to that of Yarrow (1882) with respect to Kansas material. Even in Hartman (1906) we cannot be sure the specimens he notes from Kansas City are A. americanus, because he also refers to A. americanus from Graham County (he did however, collect the earliest known specimen [see below]). Thus, the earliest published report of the American Toad in Kansas is by Burt and Burt (1929) and their reference to specimens observed near Cherryvale in Montgomery County. The earliest existing specimen (KU 6343) was collected by Frank A Hartman (a high-school teacher in Wichita) on 25 April 1904 (see also Moriarty and Collins [1995]).
Smith (1950) first pointed out the occurrence of the odd looking American Toads in Cherokee County. While not describing them as new, he noted that they possibly represented a unique form. With Smith's comments as an impetus, Bragg (1954) described the populations from eastern Oklahoma and SE Kansas as a distinct subspecies but noted that he could find no evidence of hybridization between this diminutive race and that of the nominate Bufo americanus. Collins (1982) mentioned the possible existence of this form in SE Kansas but declined to recognize it in the absence of more recent specimens. Collins did comment that should the form be found in Kansas, that it probably represented a distinct species. Masta et al. (2002) demonstrated that charlesmithi was a distinct clade and may merit specific recognition.
Where it occurs, this diminutive form is by no means rare. However, future studies are necessary to determine the limits of its distribution in Kansas.
Volpe (1955) showed that the American Toad and Woodhouse's Toad freely hybridize and produce viable offspring. This probably occurs where a combination of habitat disturbance and unfavorable temperatures force these two species to use the same breeding spot at the same time. Collins (1974b) observed these two toads and the Great Plains Toad breeding at the same time and place in Douglas County. Where hybridization occurs, identification of toads becomes difficult. Under optimal conditions, the American Toad breeds much earlier in the spring and at colder temperatures than Woodhouse's Toad.
Based on a captive specimen, Snider and Bowler (1992) reported a maximum longevity for this toad of four years, eight months, and 25 days.

Bibliography:
1836 Holbrook, John E. North American Herpetology; or, a Description of the Reptiles Inhabiting the United States. Volume 1. J. Dobson, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 120pp.
Contains the original description of Bufo americanus (=Anaxyrus americanus) page 75, Engystoma carolinense (=Gastrophryne carolinensis) page 83.
1856 Hallowell, Edward. Notice of a collection of reptiles from Kansas and Nebraska presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences, by Doctor Hammond, U. S. A. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 8():238-253
Contains reference to twenty-four species collected from 'Kansas', and includes the original description of Microps lineatus (=Tropidoclonion lineatum) from Kansas on page 241.
1857 Hallowell, Edward. Note on the collection of reptiles from the neighborhood of San Antonio, Texas, recently presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences by Dr. A. Heerman. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 8():306-310
Report on a lot of specimens received at the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences from Dr. Hammond of Ft. Riley Kansas. Of special note are three specimens of Phyrnosoma douglassii (=Phyrnosoma hernandesi) from Ft Riley (it does not naturally occur there and likely never did). Several of the specimens are marked Bridger's Pass (in Wyoming) (Western Milksnake, Plains Hog-nosed Snake, Slender Glass Lizard, and Western Tiger Salamander; all but the Slender Glass Lizard occur near there). A specimen of the Red-spotted Toad is reported as well, however, it does not occur near Ft. Riley, and as given "One Bufo punctatus, (young of Americanus)." there is some question as to its actual identity.
1880 Cragin, Francis W. A preliminary catalogue of Kansas reptiles and batrachians Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 7():112-123
Also listed the Scarlet Snake (Cemophora coccinea) [=Ophibolus doliatus var. coccineus] and Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) [=Spelerpes ruber] from Kansas.
1882 Yarrow, Henry C. Check list of North American Reptilia and Batrachia with catalogue of specimens in U. S. National Museum. Bulletin of the United States National Museum (24):1-249
A summary of all herpetological species known at the time, with reference to specimens in the United States National Museum. Including one three Acris blanchardi from Fort Riley; Agkistrodon contortrix from Fort Riley; three Ambystoma mavortium from "Kansas" and another from Fort Riley; one Anaxyrus woodhousii from "Kansas"; one Anaxyrus cognatus from "Kansas" and another from Fort Riley; one Carphophis vermis from Fort Scott; three Coluber constrictor from "Kansas" and two from Fort Riley; one Crotalus horridus from 1858; one Diadophis punctatus from Hyatt [Hyette sic], Kansas (Anderson County); one Graptemys pseudogeographica from the Republican River in Kansas;   two Heterodon nasicus from Fort Riley; one Lampropeltis calligaster from Neosho Falls; one Lampropeltis holbrooki from Fort Riley, one from "Natchez", Kansas, and one other from Shawnee Mission, Kansas;one Lampropeltis gentilis from Fort Riley and one other from the Republican River, Kansas; one Pantherophis obsoletus from Fort Riley;fourteen Phrynosoma douglassi from "Kansas" and four from Fort Riley; three Phrynosoma cornutum from Fort Riley (Riley County);  three Pituophis catenifer from "Platte Valley", Kansas [likely from eastern Colorado prior to 1861] and two specimens from Fort Riley; one Plestiodon septentrionalis from Neosho Falls (Woodson County); one Plestiodon obsoletus from Fort Riley; one Thamnophis sirtalis from "Kansas"; one Nerodia sipedon from Fort Riley and another from Neosho Falls; one Scincella lateralis from Fort Scott (Bourbon County); one Thamnophis proximus from Fort Riley; four Sceloporus consobrinus from Fort Riley; one Tantilla nigriceps from Fort Riley; four Thamnophis sirtalis from "Kansas" and two from Little Blue River, Kansas; 
1889 Cope, Edward D. The batrachia of North America. Bulletin of the United States National Museum (34):1-525
1) 14 specimens of Ambystoma tigrinum (= Ambystoma mavortium) from Fort Riley, 'Kansas', and 'Southern Kansas' including one with only three phalanges on both feet.from the 'Museum of the Philadelphia Academy' (ANSP). 2) The first record of Spelerpes multiplcatus (= Eurycea tynerensis) from 'southern Kansas' and sent to Cope by Francis W. Cragin. 3) Three specimens of Bufo compactilis (= Anaxyrus speciosus) from Kansas with rudimentary cranial crests and small spots [Anaxyrus speciosus does not occur with 100 miles of Kansas currently, it is possible these specimens are young Anaxyrus woodhousii. They should be reexamined if they still exist.] 4) Lists Bufo lentiginosus americanus (= Anaxyrus americanus) from Kansas. 5) Lists Acris gryllus (= Acris blanchardi) from Kansas. 6) Includes a Chorophilus triseriatus (= Pseudacris maculata) from "Blue River, Kansas".
1906 Hartman, Frank A. Food habits of Kansas lizards and batrachians. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 20():225-229
1922 Larson, Mary E. Effect of the extirpation of the thyroid glad upon the hypophysis in Bufo. Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 38pp.
1929 Burt, Charles E. and May Danheim Burt. A collection of amphibians and reptiles from the Mississippi valley, with field observations. American Museum Novitates (381):1-14
1932 Mansfield, Robert R. A Comparative study of the Helminthes of the Anura from five given localities. Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 35pp.
1932 Gloyd, Howard K. The herpetological fauna of the Pigeon Lake Region, Miami County, Kansas. Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 15():389-408
First record of Notophthalmus viridescens from Kansas. Second record (after the type locality) of Pseudacris crucifer from Kansas.
1933 Smith, Hobart M. The Amphibians of Kansas Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 383pp.
The first full accounting of the twenty-five species of amphibians known to occur in Kansas. Includes Ambystoma maculatum which is currently not included in the Kansas faunal list.
1934 Smith, Hobart M. The Amphibians of Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 15(4):377-527
The formal publication of Hobart Smith's Master's Thesis (Smith 1933), though there are several updated and additions. In addition to the species accounts for all twenty-five species, the paper includes a history of amphibian biology in Kansas and discussions on taxonomy and physiography. 
1936 Brumwell, Malcolm J. Distributional records of the reptilia and amphibians of Kansas. Privately printed, . 22pp.
County dot maps of the Kansas herpetofauna. This work has been attributed to have been written around 1933, but that may be in error. 
Hypsiglena jani was not known from Kansas until Claude W. Hibbard collected three specimens on the Stevenson Ranch in north-central Clark County (above Clark State Lake) during June 1936 (Hibbard, 1937). Brumwell plotted this locality, which leads me to believe that the 1936 would have been the earliest date this manuscript could have been written.
1941 Smith, Charles Clinton and Arthur N. Bragg. Food of Bufo a. americanus, B. cognatus, and B. woodhousei in Oklahoma. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 22(4):30
1947 Hall, Henry H. and Hobart M. Smith. Selected records of reptiles and amphibians from southeastern Kansas Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 49(4):447-454
Report on certain Kansas specimens housed in the collection at what is now Pittsburg State University. Included are several species of dubious status today, including Cryptobranchus alleganiensis from the Neosho and Spring rivers (the only specimens from those significant drainages ever documented), Ambystoma maculatum from just north of Pittsburg, Crawford County, Heterodon nasicus from Crawford County, Opheodrys vernalis from Crawford County, Sonora episcopa from Crawford County, Agkistrodon piscivorus from Cherokee County, Crotalus atrox from Crawford County, and Crotalus viridis from Crawford County. They report several significant range extensions including Kinosternon flavescens from Turkey Creek in southeast Cherokee County, Graptemys geographica from just north of Pittsburg, Crotaphytus collaris from near Columbus, Cherokee County, Sceloporus consobrinus from just north of Pittsburg, Phrynosoma cornutum from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Heterodon platirhinos from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Haldea striatula from Crawford County, Sistrurus tergeminus from Crawford County, and a 402 lb Macrochelys temminckii in Cherokee County from just east of Chetopa (Labette County). They allude to the potential for Anaxyrus fowleri to occur in southeast Kansas and for native populations of Crotalus atrox in south central Kansas (in part from the disclosure that John R. Breukelman [then of ESU] had obtained three specimens in Woods County Oklahoma, 3/4 of a mile south of the Kansas line). None of the specimens the paper was based on, exist today.
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
The first modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table and text say 97 on p. 10) and 13 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies.
1951 Brumwell, Malcolm J. An ecological survey of the Fort Leavenworth Military Reservation American Midland Naturalist 45(1):187-231
Published posthumously. Lieutenant Brumwell died December 14, 1941, as a result of injuries incurred during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. This paper is a condensed version of his thesis for the Master's degree.
1951 Freiburg, Richard E. An ecological study of the narrow-mouthed toad (Microhyla) in northeastern Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 54(3):374-386
1953 Bellis, Edward D. The effects of temperature on the breeding calls of some Oklahoma Salientians. Thesis. University of Oklahoma, Norman. pp.
1953 Schmidt, Karl P. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 280pp.
Schmidt's first edition of his standardized checklist to North American amphibians and reptiles. Includes several specific references to Kansas in the range descriptions.
1953 Sanders, Ottys. A new species of toad, with a discussion of morphology of the bufonid skull. Herpetologica 9(1):25-47
1954 Bragg, Arthur N. Bufo terrestris charlesmithi, a new subspecies from Oklahoma Wasmann Journal of Biology 12(2):245
1955 Volpe, E. Peter. Intensity of reproductive isolation between sympatric and allopatric populations of Bufo americanus and Bufo fowleri. The American Naturalist 89():303-317
1956 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. Second edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (9):1-356
Hobart M. Smith's updated second edition of his first (1950) modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table says 97 on p. 10; text says 98 on p. 10) and 11 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies. The second edition has updated taxonomy, added Plestiodon laticeps, and removed Eurycea tynerensis.
1956 Loomis, Richard B. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 37():1195-1443
Examined 2,628 Kansas reptiles of 48 species consisting of 27 turtles of 4 species, 1,736 lizards of 12 species and 892 snakes of 32 species for chiggers. Eleven species of chiggers were recovered from reptiles.
For amphibians, 1188 individuals of 21 species were examined. Five species of chigger mite were recovered from amphibians.
1957 Bellis, Edward D. The effects of temperature on salientian breeding calls. Copeia 1957(2):85-89
1958 Fitch, Henry S. Home ranges, territories, and seasonal movements of vertebrates of the Natural History Reservation. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History 11(3):63-326
1958 Blair, W. Frank. Mating call in the speciation of anuran amphibians. The American Naturalist 92(862):27-51
1967 Choate, Jerry R. Wildlife in the Wakarusa Watershed of Northeastern Kansas. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 46pp.
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
Joseph T. Collins first Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Smith 1956)>
1975 Perry, Janice. A trip to southeastern Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (7):4
1976 Rundquist, Eric M. Field checklist (of) amphibians and reptiles of Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Caldwell, Janalee P. and Gregory. Glass. Vertebrates of the Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Pages 62-76 in Preliminary inventory of the biota of Woodson County State Fishing Lake and Game Management Area. Report No. 5. State Biological Survey of Kansas, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Grow, David. The KHS goes to Chetopa. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (13):2-3
Spring field trip (22 May 1976) along the Neosho River.
1976 Miller, Larry L. KHS visits Elk County. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (15):1-2
1977 Rundquist, Eric M. and Joseph T. Collins. The amphibians of Cherokee County, Kansas. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 12pp.
1977 Perry, Janice. KHS members achieve goal: Get Cottonmouth. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (21):3-4
1977 Rundquist, Eric M. The Spring Peeper, Hyla crucifer Wied (Anura, Hylidae) in Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 80(3 & 4):155-8
Summarized our current knowledge of the Pseudacris crucifer in Kansas. Mapping records from Leavenworth, Miami, Linn, and Cherokee counties. The validity of the (type) specimen from Leavenworth County was questioned. Reports on recent records from Cherokee County substantiating the earlier records for the county.
1978 Curl, Richard L. Final Environmental Statement: Milford Lake Kansas operation and maintenance. US Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District. 158pp.
Notable mentions: Spotted Salamander, Smooth Green Snake
1978 Skie, Shelley and Martha Bickford. KHS takes to the field in July at Winfield. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (26):42798
1978 Perry, Janice. KHS successful at Miami County State Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (27):5
1978 Collins, Joseph T. and Janalee P. Caldwell. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1977. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 6():70-88
1979 Gray, Peter. Low attendance slows KHS. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (32):1
1979 Guarisco, Hank. Preliminary laboratory observations of predation by native Texas Garter Snakes upon hatchling Five-lined Skinks. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (32):7-8
1980 Spencer, Dwight. Spencer, D. 1980. Ross Natural History Reservation: the first twenty years, 1959 to 1979. Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas.. 64pp.
1980 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1979. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 9():1-11
1980 Glass, G. E., and N .A. Slade. The effect of Sigmodon hispidus on spatial and temporal activity of Microtus ochrogaster: Evidence for competition Ecology 61():358-370
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Report to the Kansas Fish and Game Commission on the status of three amphibians in southeastern Kansas. Kansas Fish and Game Commission, Pratt. 57pp.
1982 Fitch, Henry S. Resources of a snake community in prairie-woodland habitat of northeastern Kansas. Pages 83-97 in Herpetological communities: A symposium of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles and the Herpetologists League, August 1977.  Wildlife Research Reports 12. 239 pp. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D. C. pp.
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
Joseph T. Collins second Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1974)>
1983 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1982 . Technical Publication of the State Biological Survey of Kansas 13():9-21
1984 Brown, Kenneth L. Pomona: A plains village variant in eastern Kansas and western Missouri. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 519pp.
1984 Secor, Stephen M. and Charles C. Carpenter. Distribution maps of Oklahoma reptiles. Oklahoma Herpetological Society Special Publication (3):1-57
1985 Lynch, John D. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Science 13():33-57
1987 Coleman, Keith. Annual KHS Field Trip held at Atchison State Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (68):5-6
1988 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1987. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (71):13-19
1989 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1989. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (78):16-21
1990 Simon, Martin P. and Joseph H. Dorlac. The results of a faunistic survey of reptiles and amphibians of Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. 11pp.
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Maximum size records for Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):13-17
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1991 Fitch, Henry S. Reptiles and amphibians of the Kansas ecological reserves. Pages 71-74 in Ecology and Hydrology of Kansas Ecological Reserves and the Baker Wetlands. Multidisciplinary Guidebook 4. Kansas Academy of Science, Lawrence, Kansas. pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (83):7-13
1991 Collins, Joseph T. Results of third Kansas herp count held during April-May 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (85):9-13
1992 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (87):12-17
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Observations on Kansas amphibians and reptiles Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (88):13-15
1992 Collins, Joseph T. Results of the fourth Kansas herp count held during April-May 1992. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (89):10-
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
Joseph T. Collins third Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1982)>
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the fifth Kansas herp count held during April-June 1993 . Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (94):7-11
1993 Viets, Brian E. An annotated list of the herpetofauna of the F. B., and Rena G. Ross Natural History Reservation. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 96(1/2):103-113
1994 Fitzgerald, Eve C. and Charles Nilon. Classification of habitats for endangered and threatened species in Wyandotte County, Kansas Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 98pp.
1994 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1993. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):15-19
1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):5-14
See, 1994 Rundquist, Eric M. Additions and corrections [to the results of the sixth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1994]. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):4.
1994 Riedle, J. Daren. A survey of reptiles and amphibians at Montgomery County State Fishing Lake. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (98):11-13
1995 Moriarty, Emily C. and Joseph T. Collins. First known occurrence of amphibian species in Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (100):28-30
1995 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the seventh annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (101):11-17
1995 Rundquist, Eric M. Additional KHS herp counts for 1995. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (102):11-
1996 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eighth annual KHS herp counts Held 1 April-31 May 1996. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (104):6-17
1996 Rakestraw, J. Spring herp counts: A Kansas tradition. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (March-April):75-80
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Addendum to 1997 KHS herp counts. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (109):14-15
1997 Collins, Joseph T. A report on the KHS fall field trip to the Marais des Cygnes wildlife refuges. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (110):2-3
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1998 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians & Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 131pp.
1998 Sanchiz, B. Handbuch der Palaoherpetologie. Part 4: Salientia. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen. 275pp.
1998 Gamble, Jerre. Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hartford, Kansas. 91pp.
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the tenth annual KHS herp counts for 1998, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (112):11-18
1999 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas Herpetological Society herp counts: A 10 year summary and evaluation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (115):42962
1999 Taggart, Travis W. Cherokee County fall 1999 herp count. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (117):6
Reported Anaxyrus woodhousii was likely A. fowleri.
2000 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the eleventh and twelfth annual KHS herpetofaunal counts for 1999-2000, held 1 April-31 May. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (122):11-16
2000 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2000 fall field trip. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (122):6-8
2001 Fitch, Henry S. Further study of the garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, in northeastern Kansas. Scientific Papers of the Natural History Museum University of Kansas (19):1-6
2001 Taggart, Travis W. The KHS 2001 spring field trip: A rainy rendezvous. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (124):12-14
2001 Ellis, Mark R. Reproduction in the Common Garter Snake in Shawnee County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):12
2001 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the thirteenth annual KHS herp counts for 2001, held 1 April-30 June. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):13-16
2002 Kingsbury, Bruce and Joanna Gibson. Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Midwest. Publication of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, Address not given. 152pp.
2002 Fogell, Daniel D. Occurrence and relative abundance of amphibians and reptiles at Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Homestead National Monument of America, and Pipestone National Monument within the Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network. Interim Report. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.. 6pp.
2002 Gubanyi, James E. Osage County herp count I. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):15
2002 Miller, Larry L. Osage County herp count II. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):15
2002 Miller, Larry L. Shawnee County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (4):15
2002 Masta, Susan E., Brian K. Sullivan, Trip Lamb, and Eric J. Routman. Molecular systematics, hybridization, and phylogeography of the Bufo americanus complex in eastern North America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24():302-314
2003 Holman, J. Alan. Fossil Frogs and Toads of North America. Indiana University Press, Bloomington. 246pp.
2003 Fogell, Daniel D. A herpetofaunal inventory of Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Homestead National Monument of America, and Pipestone National Monument within the Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.. 59pp.
This is the version the author submitted to the NPS. Their final publication was modified.
2003 Suleiman, G. Fort Riley herpetofaunal count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):11-12
2003 Taggart, Travis W. KHS conducts first systematic road survey. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):11-12
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2003 KHS spring field trip to Wilson County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):2-5
2003 Burr, Andrew. Coffey County herp count 1. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):7
2003 Volkmann, Al. Cowley County herp count 1. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):7
2003 Gubanyi, James E. Osage County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):8
2003 Gubanyi, James E. Shawnee County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (7):9
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2003 fall field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (8):14-15
2004 Gubanyi, James E. Osage County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):11
2004 Gubanyi, James E. Wilson County herp count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):12
2004 Pauly, Gregory B., David M. Hillis, and David C. Cannatella. The history of a Nearctic colonization: Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution 58():2517-2535
2005 Lannoo, Michael (Editor) Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species. University fo California Press, Berkeley. 1115pp.
2005 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2005 fall field trip [to Crawford County]. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (16):19-21
2006 Altig, Ronald, Roy W. McDiarmid, Kimberly A. Nichols, and Paul C. Ustach. Tadpoles of the United States and Canada: A Tutorial and Key Electronic files accessible at http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/tadpole/. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA. ():
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2006 Frost, Darrel R, Taran Grant, Julian Faivovich, Raoul H. Bain, Alexander Haas, Celio F. B. Haddad, Rafael O. De Sa, Alan Channing, Mark Wilkinson, Stephen C. Donnellan, Christopher J. Raxworthy, Jonathan A. Campbell, Boris L. Blotto, Paul Moler, Robert C. Drewes, Ronald A. Nussbaum, John D. Lynch, David M. Green, and Ward C. Wheeler. The amphibian tree of life Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (297):370
2006 Anderson, Lewis R. and Joseph A. Arruda. Land use and anuran biodiversity in southeast Kansas, USA. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 4(1):46-59
2006 Wilgers, Dustin J. and Eva A. Horne. Effects of different burn regimes on tallgrass prairie herpetofaunal species diversity and community composition in the Flint Hills, Kansas. Journal of Herpetology 40():73-84
2006 Wilgers, Dustin J., Eva A. Horne, Brett K. Sandercock, and Allan W. Volkmann. Effects of rangeland management on community dynamics of the herpetofauna of the tallgrass prairie. 62():378-388
2008 Pauly, Gregory B. Phylogenetic systematics, historical biogeography, and the evolution of vocalizations in Nearctic toads (Bufo). Dissertation. University of Texas, Austin. 165pp.
TNHC 62701 (CK Co.) used in analyses.
2009 Murrow, Daniel G. KHS 2009 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (29):42769
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
Joseph T. Collins fourth Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1993)>
2010 Murrow, Daniel G. Kansas Herpetological Society spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (33):2-3
2011 McMartin, David C. U. S. Army 2011 Fort Leavenworth Herpetofaunal Survey: 23 April - 09 May 2011. Privately printed, Leavenworth, Kansas. 33pp.
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 spring field trip to beheld in Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (37):5-7
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS Spring Field Trip to Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (38):2-4
2011 McMartin, D. Chris. Herp Count: Fort Leavenworth Herpetofaunal Survey for 2011. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):8-9
2011 Fontenot, Brian E., Robert Makowsky, Paul T. Chippindale. Nuclear-mitochondrial discordance and gene flow in a recent radiation of toads. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 59():66-80
2012 Rohweder, Megan R. Spatial conservation prioritization of Kansas for terrestrial vertebrates. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 151pp.
2012 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada: Second Edition, Revised and Updated. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 152pp.
2013 Dodd, C. Kenneth. Frogs of the United States and Canada. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 982pp.
2013 Bass, Neil. The Missouri River Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Project: For the river, for you, and for herps. Collinsorum 2(1/2):10-11
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Spring Field Trip to Bourbon County State Lake. Collinsorum 2(3/4):3
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Spring Field Trip to Schermerhorn Park, Cherokee County. Collinsorum 2(3/4):4
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Summer Field Trip to Coldwater Lake, Comanche County. Collinsorum 2(3/4):5
2013 Mardis, Dexter and Kevin Scott. 2013 Kansas Herpetofaunal Counts. Collinsorum 2(3/4):7
2014 McMartin, D. Chris. Fort Leavenworth Heretofaunal Survey for 2013. Collinsorum 3(1):10
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS Fall Field Trip to Woodson County. Collinsorum 3(2-4):12
2015 Bass, Neil. Herpetological (Frog and Turtle) Inventories along the Missouri River in Kansas. Collinsorum 4(1):5-9
2016 Pittman, Galen L., Henry S. Fitch, and W. Dean Kettle. Vertebrate animals on the Fitch Natural History Reservation (1948-2002) Kansas Biological Survey Report Number 188, Lawrence. 48pp.
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS Summer field trip to Caney River, Chautauqua County, Kansas. Collinsorum 5(2-3):4-5
2017 O'Connor, David A. J. S. Effects of geographic range variation: Lessons from the impact of post-glacial geographic range expansion on the morphology, development and competitive interactions of the American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus). Dissertation. McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 182pp.
2017 Snyder, Ariel. Survey Of Anuran Chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in Kansas and the Influence of Anuran Life History in Occurrence. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 53pp.
2017 Taggart, Travis W. and J. Daren Riedle. A Pocket Guide to Kansas Amphibians, Turtles and Lizards. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, Kansas. 69pp.
2017 Crother, Brian I. (editor) Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Eighth edition. Herpetological Circulars (43):102
2017 Mardis, Dexter R. Results from three Herpetofaunal tallies at Wichita State University’s Youngmeyer Ranch in Northwestern Elk County. Collinsorum 6(1):8-10
2017 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2017 KHS Spring Field Trip to Elk County, Kansas. Collinsorum 6(2-3):6-8
2019 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada. Third Edition. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 192pp.
2020 Daniel, Richard E. and Brian S. Edmond. Atlas of Missouri Amphibians and Reptiles for 2019. Privately printed, Columbia, Missouri. 86pp.
2020 Riedle, J. Daren. Revisiting Kansas Herpetological Society field trip and Herp Count data: Distributional patterns and trend data of Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Collinsorum 9(1):7-16
2020 Hullinger, Allison, Zackary Cordes, Daren Riedle, and William Stark. Habitat assessment of the Broad-headed Skink (Plestiodon laticeps) and the associated squamate community in eastern Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 123(1-2):137-150
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Neosho County: KHS-2020-01 Collinsorum 9(3):11
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Cherokee County: KHS-2020-02 Collinsorum 9(3):11-12
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Cherokee County: KHS-2020-03 Collinsorum 9(3):12
2021 Riedle, J. Daren, Tamera D. Riedle, Zachary Riedle, and Greya Riedle. Herp Count: Montgomery County: KHS-2020-23. Collinsorum 9(3):14-15
2021 Tyson, Kelsea, Lexis Mader, Thomas Zapletal, Jeremiah Cline, Alyssa Farney, Loegan Hill, Jainee Cowen, Camron Matteson, and David Penning. Measuring herpetofaunal biodiversity in southwest Missouri. Collinsorum 10(2):13-18
2022 Buckardt, Emma M. Amphibian Occupancy and Diversity on a Post-mined Landscape. Thesis. Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, Kansas. 93pp.
2023 Dodd, C. Kenneth. Frogs of the United States and Canada. Second Edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 1032pp.
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Travis W. Taggart © 1999-2024 — w/ Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University