An adult Plains Hog-nosed Snake from Hamilton County, Kansas. © Suzanne L. Collins, CNAH.
An adult Plains Hog-nosed Snake from Harper County. © Travis W. Taggart.
An adult Plains Hog-nosed Snake feigning death in Trego County. © Travis W. Taggart.
An adult Plains Hog-nosed Snake from Trego County. © Travis W. Taggart.
An adult Plains Hog-nosed Snake from Greenwood County, Kansas (KU 20321). Image courtesy KUMNH.
An adult Plains Hog-nosed Snake from Chautauqua County, Kansas (KU 159830). Image courtesy KUMNH.
A juvenile Plains Hog-nosed Snake from Elk County, Kansas (KU 194777). Image courtesy KUMNH.
REPTILIA (Reptiles) SQUAMATA (PART) (Snakes) DIPSADIDAE (Harmless Rear-Fanged Snakes)

Plains Hog-nosed Snake
Heterodon nasicus Baird and Girard 1852
hĕ-tĕr-ō-dŏn — năs-ĭ-kŭs


Conservation Status:

State: Kansas Species in Need of Conservation (SINC)

Federal: None
NatureServe State: S5 - Secure
NatureServe National: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Global: G5 - Secure
CITES: None
Diagnosis:
HARMLESSLY VENOMOUS. Uses its venom to subdue prey, but is not dangerous to humans because a) they have an ineffective venom delivery mechanism, b) their mouths are too small to gain purchase, and/or c) their venom is not adapted for causing physiological damage to mammals.
The Plains Hog-nosed Snake is characterized by keeled scales, a divided anal scale, a sharply turned-up snout, and its belly and the underside of its tail extensively colored jet black. The body, head, and tail vary from gray to yellow or light brown. There are 23- 50 dark brown blotches down the back and rows of smaller, similarly colored spots alternating on the sides. The jet black areas on the belly and underside of the tail may be edged with yellow. Adult males have fewer blotches on the back and longer tails than females. Females grow larger than males.
Adults normally grow 38.0- 63.5 cm (15-25 inches) in total length. The largest specimen from Kansas is a female (KU 218806) from Morton County with a total length of 91.8 cm (36 inches) collected by Robert L. Ball on 20 May 1991. The maximum length throughout its range is 100.3 cm (39½ inches) (Conant and Collins, 1998).

Distribution:
The Plains Hog-nosed Snake occurs throughout the western three-quarters of Kansas, reaching its peak abundance on the High Plains. Its range extends east to the Flint Hills, with a few isolated records along the western border of the Osage Cuestas.
The southeastern-most populations are likely relictual.
(,   Museum Voucher) (,   Observation) (,   Literature Record) (,   iNat Record), (  Fossil)
Open icons are questionable records; Click on a marker to view details.
Full range depicted by light shaded red area. Export Google Earth (.kml)
  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 509
    Records 
  • 453
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 56
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):
Barber (15); Barton (8); Chautauqua (1); Cheyenne (11); Clark (6); Cloud (1); Comanche (1); Cowley (4); Crawford (1); Decatur (2); Dickinson (14); Edwards (7); Elk (1); Ellis (34); Ellsworth (3); Finney (41); Ford (20); Geary (4); Gove (4); Graham (4); Grant (2); Gray (7); Greeley (3); Greenwood (1); Hamilton (21); Harper (5); Harvey (9); Haskell (2); Hodgeman (4); Jewell (2); Kearney (2); Kearny (1); Kiowa (6); Lane (4); Lincoln (1); Logan (19); McPherson (1); Meade (37); Mitchell (1); Morton (22); Ness (1); Norton (1); Osborne (2); Ottawa (1); Phillips (8); Pratt (6); Rawlins (5); Reno (6); Republic (6); Rice (1); Riley (2); Rooks (5); Rush (1); Russell (4); Saline (5); Scott (1); Sedgwick (6); Seward (8); Sheridan (4); Sherman (7); Smith (1); Stafford (13); Stanton (4); Stevens (7); Sumner (2); Thomas (2); Trego (31); Unknown (17); Wallace (16); Washington (1); Wichita (2); Wyandotte (1);

Fossil History:
Fossils from the Kanopolis Local Fauna of Ellsworth County (Pleistocene: Rancholabrean I) (Preston 1979, Holman 1972, Holman 1984; Holman 1995) are assignable to this genus.
Fossils from the Mount Scott Local Fauna of Meade County (Pleistocene: Illinoian) (Preston 1979, Holman 1987; Holman 1995) are assignable to this genus.
Fossils from the Butler Spring Local Fauna of Meade County (Pleistocene: Illinoian) (Tihen 1962; Preston 1979; Holman 1995) are assignable to this genus.
Fossils from the Cragin Quarry Local Fauna of Meade County (Pleistocene: Sangamonian) (Hay 1917; Etheridge 1958; Etheridge 1960, Tihen 1960; Tihen 1962; Brattstrom 1967; Preston 1979; Holman 1995) are assignable to this taxon.
Fossils from the Courtland Canal local fauna of Jewell County (Eshelman and Hager, 1984) are referable to this taxon.

Natural History:
Platt (1969, 1985) extensively studied this snake in central Kansas, and much of the information from Kansas is based on his observations.
Plains Hog-nosed Snakes generally are found in grassland or sand prairie in western Kansas; most records in the eastern part of the state are probably from isolated populations in sandy areas. This snake is active from mid-April to October at optimal air temperatures of 70-95°F. Plains Hog-nosed Snake are diurnal, active primarily in the morning and late afternoon. When not active, this snake burrows beneath sandy loose soil to maintain an optimal body temperature. The home range of Plains Hog-nosed Snake is quite variable, depending on available habitat and food. This animal is not territorial. Population density may be as much as one to three snakes per acre. During winter, this species burrows deep beneath the ground to avoid cold temperatures.
Although the Plains Hog-nosed Snake usually mates during May after emerging from winter inactivity, a few matings occur in the fall. The number of eggs per clutch varies from four to 23 (Platt 1969; Fitch, 1985), with an average of nine; eggs are laid in July in nests a few centimeters below the soil. Females evidently deposit a clutch every other year. Incubation time for the eggs is 50- 60 days. Courtship has not been observed. Taggart (1992) collected a gravid female in Ellis County on 28 June; she laid 16 eggs on 2 July.
This reptile detects its prey by smell, digging a food item from its burrow beneath the soil. Its upturned snout allows the Plains Hog-nosed Snake to dig up and eat toads, reptile eggs, small lizards, and snakes. This snake also consumes rodents and birds when it can capture them.

Occurrence Activity:
Number of Unique Obervations (=days): 139; Range: 02 Jan to 01 Dec
Remarks:
First reported in Kansas by Hallowell (1857) based on a specimen collected by Fort Riley surgeon William A. Hammond in the vicinity of Fort Riley. Bocourt (1879) mentions (page 605; translated from French) "Heterodon nasicus, which Samuel Garman said is only a variety of Heterodon simus, Linné, is represented at the Museum [National Museum of Natural History (Paris)] by two individuals from the USA: one, from Kansas, donated by the Academy of Philadelphia; the other, of Nebraska, by the Smithsonian Institution." The earliest existing specimen (MCZ 4348) was collected by James A. Allen at Fort Hays, Ellis County, sometime during 1860 (inferred from the dates of specimens cataloged just before and after). The earliest date specimen is MCZ R5201, collected by Samuel W. Garmen at Wallace, Wallace County, on 1 July 1883.
The Plains Hog-nosed Snake was listed as a Kansas SINC species in 1987. Cope (1900) recorded this species from "Fort Riley, Kansas", and Gloyd (1929) reported another specimen from the vicinity of Manhattan, which was subsequently lost.
Burt (1935) reports on a specimen secured as it was crawling along drift about 75 feet above the edge of Lake Lakin in western Kansas on 27 May 1934; another was found on a sandbank in the salt marsh area of south-central Kansas 26 May 1934.
Populations in southeast Kansas have been referred to as H. n. gloydi (Edgren 1952). The two forms could purportedly be differentiated based on dorsal blotch count (excluding the tail) (<32 in males and <37 in females in H. n. gloydi [compared to >35 in males and >40 in females in H. n. nasicus] and H. n. gloydi by having poorly defined (diffuse edged) dorsal blotches, giving specimens a ''faded'' appearance.
The three putative 'gloydi' specimens known from Kansas have a dorsal blotch count of 31 (KU 20321; Greenwood Co.; 1936; male [included in Edgren''s (1952) description (see Platt, 1969)]), 36 (KU 159830; Chautauqua Co.; 1976; female), and 31 (KU 194777; Elk Co.; 1983; male).
H. n. gloydi has been shown repeatedly to not warrant taxonomic recognition; Eckerman (1996), Walley and Eckerman (1999), and Smith (2003).
Hog-nosed Snakes (Heterodon spp.) have an enlarged tooth toward the rear of their upper jaws on each side. The hypothesized function is to aid the ingestion (actually deflation) of toads (their preferred food). When captured, toads fill themselves up with air, making themselves much bigger (and more difficult to swallow). The enlarged teeth are not connected to a venom delivery system. Hog-nosed (and many other ''harmless'') snakes produce venom, however, they lack the efficient venom delivery systems that Kansas'' pit-vipers (rattlesnakes, copperheads, etc.) possess. Additionally, Heterodon venom is produced in smaller quantities, w/ high prey specificity, and/or low toxicity than pit-viper venom. They are also behaviorally reluctant to bite. Nearly all envenomations result from accidents during the feeding of a pet snake, combined with hypersensitivity to the saliva on the part of the bitten person. In any case, the worst symptoms include localized swelling, slight discoloration/bruising, and the formation of small blisters.
Observably abundant in the western half of the state in areas with loose sandy soils, this species becomes noticeably scarce toward the east.This snake exhibits an interesting defensive behavior. When approached, it generally attempts to escape by crawling clumsily away. When more closely threatened, it may attempt to conceal its head beneath its coils. If this does not dissuade an intruder, the snake spreads a "hood" by flattening its neck and hisses loudly. Occasionally the snake may "strike" at the intruder, but in all instances the strike is short and the mouth is closed. If this fails to frighten the intruder, the Plains Hog-nosed Snake will writhe and contort, disgorge recently eaten food, and roll over on its back and "play dead." The snake may remain "dead" for up to five minutes. If left alone, it rolls over on its belly and crawls away.
Based on a captive specimen, Snider and Bowler (1992) reported a maximum longevity for this species of nineteen years, ten months, and 28 days.

Bibliography:
1852 Baird, Spencer F. and Charles Girard. Reptiles. Pages 336-365 in Howard Stansbury's, An expedition to the valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah: Including a description of its geography, natural history, and minerals, and an analysis of its waters: With an authentic account of the Mormon Settlement: Also, a reconnoissance [sic] of a new route through the Rocky Mountains. Sampson Low, Son, and Company., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 487pp. US House of Representatives, Washington. pp.
Contains the original description of Heterodon nasicus page 352.
1856 Hallowell, Edward. Notice of a collection of reptiles from Kansas and Nebraska presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences, by Doctor Hammond, U. S. A. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 8():238-253
Contains reference to twenty-four species collected from 'Kansas', and includes the original description of Microps lineatus (=Tropidoclonion lineatum) from Kansas on page 241.
1857 Hallowell, Edward. Note on the collection of reptiles from the neighborhood of San Antonio, Texas, recently presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences by Dr. A. Heerman. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 8():306-310
Report on a lot of specimens received at the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences from Dr. Hammond of Ft. Riley Kansas. Of special note are three specimens of Phyrnosoma douglassii (=Phyrnosoma hernandesi) from Ft Riley (it does not naturally occur there and likely never did). Several of the specimens are marked Bridger's Pass (in Wyoming) (Western Milksnake, Plains Hog-nosed Snake, Slender Glass Lizard, and Western Tiger Salamander; all but the Slender Glass Lizard occur near there). A specimen of the Red-spotted Toad is reported as well, however, it does not occur near Ft. Riley, and as given "One Bufo punctatus, (young of Americanus)." there is some question as to its actual identity.
1863 Jan, Giorgio. Elenco Sistematico degli Ofidi descriti e disegnati per l'Iconografia Generale. [Systematic list of Ophidians described and drawn for General Iconography.] A. Lombardi, Milan, Italy. 143pp.
Records Heterodon nasicus, Lampropeltis calligaster, Coluber constrictor, and Thamnophis radix from Kansas. The Crotalus viridis (confluentus [sic]) record is likely a Sistrurus tergeminus (though S. tergeminus records were also listed separately). It is from Pole Creek, Kansas. is likely (Pole Creek, Washington County, Kansas).
1877 Mozley, Annie E. List of Kansas snakes in the museum of the Kansas State University. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 6():34-35
First attempt to compile a complete list of snakes reported from Kansas. Most specimens were from Douglas and Wallace counties.
Contains obvious identification/locality errors Thamnophis marcianus (Douglas County) and Heterodon simus (Wallace County).
Neroida holbrookii = Nerodia rhombifer.
Use of the name 'Kansas State University' actually refers to The University of Kansas where Annie E. (Mozley)Boddington received her BS @ KU in 1878 (see also Gloyd 1928).
1880 Cragin, Francis W. A preliminary catalogue of Kansas reptiles and batrachians Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 7():112-123
Also listed the Scarlet Snake (Cemophora coccinea) [=Ophibolus doliatus var. coccineus] and Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber) [=Spelerpes ruber] from Kansas.
1882 Yarrow, Henry C. Check list of North American Reptilia and Batrachia with catalogue of specimens in U. S. National Museum. Bulletin of the United States National Museum (24):1-249
A summary of all herpetological species known at the time, with reference to specimens in the United States National Museum. Including one three Acris blanchardi from Fort Riley; Agkistrodon contortrix from Fort Riley; three Ambystoma mavortium from "Kansas" and another from Fort Riley; one Anaxyrus woodhousii from "Kansas"; one Anaxyrus cognatus from "Kansas" and another from Fort Riley; one Carphophis vermis from Fort Scott; three Coluber constrictor from "Kansas" and two from Fort Riley; one Crotalus horridus from 1858; one Diadophis punctatus from Hyatt [Hyette sic], Kansas (Anderson County); one Graptemys pseudogeographica from the Republican River in Kansas;   two Heterodon nasicus from Fort Riley; one Lampropeltis calligaster from Neosho Falls; one Lampropeltis holbrooki from Fort Riley, one from "Natchez", Kansas, and one other from Shawnee Mission, Kansas;one Lampropeltis gentilis from Fort Riley and one other from the Republican River, Kansas; one Pantherophis obsoletus from Fort Riley;fourteen Phrynosoma douglassi from "Kansas" and four from Fort Riley; three Phrynosoma cornutum from Fort Riley (Riley County);  three Pituophis catenifer from "Platte Valley", Kansas [likely from eastern Colorado prior to 1861] and two specimens from Fort Riley; one Plestiodon septentrionalis from Neosho Falls (Woodson County); one Plestiodon obsoletus from Fort Riley; one Thamnophis sirtalis from "Kansas"; one Nerodia sipedon from Fort Riley and another from Neosho Falls; one Scincella lateralis from Fort Scott (Bourbon County); one Thamnophis proximus from Fort Riley; four Sceloporus consobrinus from Fort Riley; one Tantilla nigriceps from Fort Riley; four Thamnophis sirtalis from "Kansas" and two from Little Blue River, Kansas; 
1886 Bocourt, Marie F. Etudes sur les reptiles. [Studies on reptiles.] Pages 593–656 + 657–660 in Duméril, Mocquard, and Bocourt, 1870-1909. Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amér. Livraison 10. [ Zoological Research to be used in the History of the Fauna of Central America and Mexico. Scientific Mission to Mexico and America. Delivery 10]. Imprimerie Impériale [Imperial Printing Office], Paris, France. pp.
In French. In text comments on Heterodon nasicus from Kansas.
1887 Cope, Edward D. Origin of the Fittest: Essays on Evolution. D. Appleton and Company, New York, New York.. 467pp.
Mentions the Prairie Rattlesnake and Western Hog-nosed Snake from the plains of Kansas (p. 212), remarking about how similarly patterned they are.
1900 Cope, Edward D. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Pages 153-1270 in Report of the U. S. National Museum for the Year Ending June 30, 1898 , Washington, D. C. pp.
1903 Branson, Edwin B. Snakes of Kansas Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 41pp.
Describes all snake species reported from Kansas, considering doubtful those species that the author has not encountered himself. This list contains twenty-nine valid species. Collections examined included State University (KU), State House, Washburn College (WU), Ottawa University, State Normal School (ESU), State Agricultural College (KSU), and several high schools in Kansas. Examined the material available to Mozley (1878) and determined that of the thirty-three species listed, only twenty-three species were valid currently. And that Cragin's (1880) list of thirty-two species included eight specimens on the authority of Mozley that this author could not verify in any collection.
1904 Branson, Edwin B. Snakes of Kansas. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 2(13):353-430
1917 Wooster, Lyman D. Nature Study Bulletin Kansas State Printing Plant, Topeka, Kansas.. 63pp.
1920 Bartlett, W. E. Tragic death feint of a snake. Nature 5(106):503
1928 Ortenburger, Arthur I. The whip snakes and racers: Genera Masticophis and Coluber. Memiors of the University of Michigan Museum (1):1-247
1929 Burt, Charles E. and May Danheim Burt. A collection of amphibians and reptiles from the Mississippi valley, with field observations. American Museum Novitates (381):1-14
1929 Taylor, Edward H. A revised checklist of the snakes of Kansas. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 19(5):53-62
1929 Taylor, Edward H. List of reptiles and batrachians of Morton County, Kansas, reporting species new to the state fauna. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 19(6):63-65
Annotated listing of 25 species discovered in southwest Morton County just prior to the Dust Bowl that wreaked havoc on the region and the subsequent creation of the Cimarron National Grassland. Of special note are Heterodon platirhinos, Thamnophis marcianus, and Anaxyrus debilis (all of which have not been found in the area since).
1929 Gloyd, Howard K. Two additions to the herpetological fauna of Riley County, Kansas. Science 66(1776):44
Reports on the first Plains Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon nasicus) and Great Plains Toad (Anaxyrus cognatus) taken (but neither cataloged) from Riley County, Kansas. The specific locality, of the H. nasicus is listed as ("near Manhattan") . No specimen of the A. cognatus exists, however, the given date/locality ("... July 12, 1928, five miles northeast of Manhattan, not far from the Blue River.") is precise enough to be mapped as a literature reference.
1932 Guthrie, J. E. Snakes versus birds; Birds versus snakes. The Wilson Bulletin 44(2):88-113
1933 Stejneger, Leonhard and Thomas Barbour. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 3rd Edition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. pp.
Reference to Kansas is the listed range of several species.
1933 Burt, Charles E. Some distributional and ecological records of Kansas reptiles. Transactions of the Academy of Science St. Louis 26():186-208
1934 Brennan, Lawrence A. A check list of the amphibians and reptiles of Ellis County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():189-191
1934 Burt, Charles E. and W. L. Hoyle. Additional records of the reptiles of the central prairie region of the United States. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 37():193-216
1935 Brennan, Lawrence A. Notes on the Distribution of Amphibia and Reptilia of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 114pp.
1935 Burt, Charles E. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16(3):311-366
1936 Brumwell, Malcolm J. Distributional records of the reptilia and amphibians of Kansas. Privately printed, . 22pp.
County dot maps of the Kansas herpetofauna. This work has been attributed to have been written around 1933, but that may be in error. 
Hypsiglena jani was not known from Kansas until Claude W. Hibbard collected three specimens on the Stevenson Ranch in north-central Clark County (above Clark State Lake) during June 1936 (Hibbard, 1937). Brumwell plotted this locality, which leads me to believe that the 1936 would have been the earliest date this manuscript could have been written.
1937 Brennan, Lawrence A. A study of the habitat of reptiles and amphibians of Ellis County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 40():341-347
1938 Schmidt, Karl P. Herpetological evidence for the postglacial eastward extension of the steppe in North America. Ecology 19(3):396-407
1939 Tihen, Joseph A. and James M. Sprague. Amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of the Meade County State Park Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 42():499-512
1941 Schmidt, Karl Peterson and D. D. Davis. Field Book of Snakes of the United States and Canada. C.P. Putnam and Sons, New York. 365pp.
1942 Hudson, G. E. The amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Nebraska Conservation Bulletin 24():1-146
1944 Marr, John C. Notes on amphibians and reptiles from the central United States. American Midland Naturalist 32(2):478-490
1945 Bugbee, R. E. A note on the mortality of snakes on highways in western Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 47():373-374
1947 Hall, Henry H. and Hobart M. Smith. Selected records of reptiles and amphibians from southeastern Kansas Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 49(4):447-454
Report on certain Kansas specimens housed in the collection at what is now Pittsburg State University. Included are several species of dubious status today, including Cryptobranchus alleganiensis from the Neosho and Spring rivers (the only specimens from those significant drainages ever documented), Ambystoma maculatum from just north of Pittsburg, Crawford County, Heterodon nasicus from Crawford County, Opheodrys vernalis from Crawford County, Sonora episcopa from Crawford County, Agkistrodon piscivorus from Cherokee County, Crotalus atrox from Crawford County, and Crotalus viridis from Crawford County. They report several significant range extensions including Kinosternon flavescens from Turkey Creek in southeast Cherokee County, Graptemys geographica from just north of Pittsburg, Crotaphytus collaris from near Columbus, Cherokee County, Sceloporus consobrinus from just north of Pittsburg, Phrynosoma cornutum from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Heterodon platirhinos from Cherokee and Crawford counties, Haldea striatula from Crawford County, Sistrurus tergeminus from Crawford County, and a 402 lb Macrochelys temminckii in Cherokee County from just east of Chetopa (Labette County). They allude to the potential for Anaxyrus fowleri to occur in southeast Kansas and for native populations of Crotalus atrox in south central Kansas (in part from the disclosure that John R. Breukelman [then of ESU] had obtained three specimens in Woods County Oklahoma, 3/4 of a mile south of the Kansas line). None of the specimens the paper was based on, exist today.
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
The first modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table and text say 97 on p. 10) and 13 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies.
1951 Wolfenbarger, Keith. A. Systematic and Biological Studies on North American Chiggers of the genus Eutrombicula (Acarina, Trombiculidae). Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 77pp.
1952 Edgren, Richard A. Biogeographical and behavioral considerations of the snakes of the genus Heterodon. Dissertation. Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. 232pp.
1952 Edgren, Richard A. A synopsis of the snakes of the genus Heterodon, with the diagnosis of a new race of Heterodon nasicus Baird and Girard. Natural History Miscellanea (112):1-4
1953 Peters, James A. A fossil snake of the genus Heterodon from the Pliocene of Kansas. Journal of Paleontology 27():328-331
1956 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. Second edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (9):1-356
Hobart M. Smith's updated second edition of his first (1950) modern herpetology of Kansas. Includes locality dot maps within individual species accounts. Reports 96 species from Kansas (table says 97 on p. 10; text says 98 on p. 10) and 11 "probable but unverified" species and subspecies. The second edition has updated taxonomy, added Plestiodon laticeps, and removed Eurycea tynerensis.
1956 Loomis, Richard B. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 37():1195-1443
Examined 2,628 Kansas reptiles of 48 species consisting of 27 turtles of 4 species, 1,736 lizards of 12 species and 892 snakes of 32 species for chiggers. Eleven species of chiggers were recovered from reptiles.
For amphibians, 1188 individuals of 21 species were examined. Five species of chigger mite were recovered from amphibians.
1957 Diener, Richard A. A western hognose snake eats a collared lizard. Herpetologica 13(2):122
1958 Smith, Ronald E. Natural history of the Prairie Dog in Kansas. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publications (16):1-36
1962 Gish, Charles D. The Herpetofauna of Ellis County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 34pp.
1965 Weaver, W. G. Jr. The cranial anatomy of the Hog-nosed Snakes (Heterodon). Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Series 9(7):275-304
1967 Choate, Jerry R. Wildlife in the Wakarusa Watershed of Northeastern Kansas. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 46pp.
1967 Brattstrom, Bayard H. A succession of Pliocene and Pleistocene snake fauna from the High Plains of the United States. Copeia 1967(1):188-202
An examination (or in many cases, a re-examination) of 11,000 accumulated skeletal elements from fossil deposits collected at various sites and ranging in age from Lower Pliocene to the Recent.
1969 Platt, Dwight R. Natural history of the hognose snakes Heterodon platyrhinos and Heterodon nasicus University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History 18(4):253-420
1970 Fitch, Henry S. Reproductive cycles in lizards and snakes. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (52):1-247
1972 Bauerle, Bruce A. Biological productivity of snakes of the Pawnee Site. Dissertation. University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado. 79pp.
1973 Kroll, James C. Comparative physiological ecology of Eastern and Western Hognose Snakes (Heterodon platyrhinos and H. nasicus). Dissertation. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.. 244pp.
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
Joseph T. Collins first Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Smith 1956)>
1974 Karns, Daryl, Ray E. Ashton, Jr., and Thomas Swearingen. Illustrated Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas: An Identification Manual. University of Kansas Publications Museum of Natural History Public Education Series(2):viii + 18
1975 Rundquist, Eric M. Amphibians and Reptiles of Kingman County, Kansas. Privately Printed, Lawrence, Kansas. 3pp.
Short accounts for twenty-nine recognized amphibians and reptiles from Kingman County, Kansas. With habitat descriptions and for some species, estimates of population density.
1976 Rundquist, Eric M. Field checklist (of) amphibians and reptiles of Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society, Lawrence. pp.
1976 Rickart, Eric A. A new horned lizard (Phrynosoma adinognathus) from the early Pleistocene of Meade County, Kansas, with comments on the herpetofauna of the Borchers locality. Herpetologica 32(1):64-67
Contains the original description of Phrynosoma adinognathus.
1977 Knight, James L. and Joseph T. Collins. The amphibians and reptiles of Cheyenne County, Kansas, Report Number 15. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 19pp.
1978 Curl, Richard L. Final Environmental Statement: Milford Lake Kansas operation and maintenance. US Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District. 158pp.
Notable mentions: Spotted Salamander, Smooth Green Snake
1978 Capron, Marty B. Four county collecting raid: A south central Kansas herping saga. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (26):9-12
1978 Collins, Joseph T. and Janalee P. Caldwell. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1977. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 6():70-88
1979 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1978. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 8():56-66
1980 Clarke, Robert F. Herptiles and fishes of the western Arkansas River in Kansas. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 55pp.
A summary of known information on the amphibian, reptile, and fish faunas of the Arkansas River above Great Bend. The report details associated field activities for procuring fish, however no new surveys for amphibians and reptiles were undertaken. Information on herps from Finney County was provided by Michael Rush (FHSU) and thus made available before the publication of his thesis (Rush, 1981). The western Arkansas River drainage had experienced little attention by herpetologists before this study, and the species accounts reflect that paucity of data. Additionally, the report omits several older records (e.g. for Anaxyrus debilisThamnophis cyrtopsis, and Lampropeltis calligaster) from the westernmost reaches of the Arkansas River drainage in Kansas.
1981 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1980. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survery of Kansas 10():7-19
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
Joseph T. Collins second Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1974)>
1982 Rogers, Karel L. Herpetofaunas of the Courland Canal and Hall Ash Local Faunas (Pleistoncene: Early Kansas) of Jewell Co., Kansas. Journal of Herpetology 16(2):174-177
1983 Platt, Dwight R. Heterodon. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (315):1-2
1983 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1982 . Technical Publication of the State Biological Survey of Kansas 13():9-21
1984 Eshelman, Ralph and Michael Hager. Two Irvingtonian (Medial Pleistocene) vertebrate faunas from northcentral Kansas. Pages 384-404 in Contributions in Quaternary Vertebrate Paleontology: A Volume in Memorial to John E. Guilday. Special Publication Number 8 Special Publication Number 8, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp.
1984 Heinrich, Mark L. Herpetofauna of the Konza Prairie Research Natural Area in the Flint Hills region of Kansas with respect to habitat selection. Thesis. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. 57pp.
1984 Secor, Stephen M. and Charles C. Carpenter. Distribution maps of Oklahoma reptiles. Oklahoma Herpetological Society Special Publication (3):1-57
1984 Collins, Joseph T. New records of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in Kansas for 1983. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (56):15-26
Invalidated the specimens of Thamnophis sirtalis from Hamilton County (reidentified as T. cyrtopsis; KU 2088) and Wallace County mapped in Collins, 1982.
1984 Schwarting, Nancy. KHS field trip, May 1984. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (57):3-4
1985 Lynch, John D. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Science 13():33-57
1986 Layher, William G., Ken L. Brunson, J.Schaefer, Marvin D. Schwilling, and R. D. Wood. Summary of nongame task force actions relative to developing three species lists: Species in Need of Conservation, Threatened, and Endangered. Kansas Fish and Game Commission, Pratt. 27pp.
1986 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1986. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (66):9-16
1987 Simmons, John E. September 1987 field trip report. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (69):42894
1989 Platt, Dwight R. Seasonal activity of snakes on a sand prairie. Pages 251-254 in Proceedings of the 11th North American Prairie Conference University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. pp.
1989 Simmons, John E. Endangered and threatened in Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (75):4-5
1989 Brunson, Ken. More on the Kansas endangered and threatened species list. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (77):17-19
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Results of second Kansas herp count held during April-May 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):10-12
1990 Collins, Joseph T. Maximum size records for Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (81):13-17
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Reptiles and Amphibians of the Cimarron National Grasslands, Morton County, Kansas. U. S. Forest Service, Elkhart, Kansas. 60pp.
1991 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1990. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (83):7-13
1991 Collins, Joseph T. Results of third Kansas herp count held during April-May 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (85):9-13
1992 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1991. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (87):12-17
1992 Taggart, Travis W. Observations on Kansas amphibians and reptiles Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (88):13-15
1992 Ball, Robert L. High plains serpents: Results of a long-term study in Texas County, Oklahoma and Morton County, Kansas Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (88):16-17
1992 Collins, Joseph T. Results of the fourth Kansas herp count held during April-May 1992. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (89):10-
1992 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas endangered, threatened, and SINC species. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (91):
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
Joseph T. Collins third Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1982)>
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the fifth Kansas herp count held during April-June 1993 . Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (94):7-11
1993 Fitch, Henry S. Relative abundance of snakes in Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 96(3/4):213-224
1994 Collins, Joseph T. New records of amphibians and reptiles in Kansas for 1993. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (97):15-19
1994 Dloogatch , Michael A. (Editor) Herpetology 1994 Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 29(12):282-283
Note on the Fitch (1993) paper in the Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Sciences (96(3-4): 213-224) on the abundance.
1995 Holman, J. Alan. Pleistocene Amphibians and Reptiles. Oxford University Press, New York. 243pp.
1995 Bartlett, R. Nature's bluffers: The American hognose snakes. Reptiles 3(4):40-46
1995 Boundy, Jeff. Maximum lengths of North American snakes. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 30(6):109-122
1996 Eckerman, Curtis M. Variation, systematics, and interspecific position of the Heterodon nasicus (Serpentes: Xenodontidae) Thesis. University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas. 214pp.
1996 Rakestraw, J. Spring herp counts: A Kansas tradition. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (March-April):75-80
1997 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the ninth annual KHS herp counts held 1 April-31 May 1997. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (108):12-17
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1998 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians & Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 131pp.
1998 Rundquist, Eric M. KDWP herp sting so far nets nine on Kansas and Federal charges. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (112):5-6
1999 Rundquist, Eric M. Kansas Herpetological Society herp counts: A 10 year summary and evaluation. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (115):42962
1999 Walley, Harlan D. and Curtis M. Eckerman. Heterodon nasicus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (698):1-10
1999 Kolbe, Jason J. Size and demographic structure of an isolated population of Western Hognose Snakes, Heterodon nasicus, in northwestern Illinois. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 34(6):149-152
2000 Taggart, Travis W. Biogeographic analysis of the reptiles (Squamata) in Ellis County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (121):7-16
2001 Schmidt, Curtis J. The amphibians, turtles, and reptiles of the Smoky Valley Ranch, Logan County, Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (124):9-11
2001 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS spring field trip west. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):10
2001 Rundquist, Eric M. Results of the thirteenth annual KHS herp counts for 2001, held 1 April-30 June. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (125):13-16
2001 Smith, Hobart M. Searching for herps in Mexico in the 1930s - 1. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 36(1):1-17
Discusses the influence of Howard K. Gloyd on him at Kansas State University and trips to the Marias des Cygnes River to find frogs.
2001 Edgren, Richard A. Heterodon to 1950, an historical assessment. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 36(6):121-123
2002 Kingsbury, Bruce and Joanna Gibson. Habitat Management Guidelines for Amphibians and Reptiles of the Midwest. Publication of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, Address not given. 152pp.
2002 Taggart, Travis W., Curtis J. Schmidt, and Joseph T. Collins. Range extension of the Texas Longnose Snake in western Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (1):8
2002 Ellis, Mark R. Fall 2002 KHS field trip to Washington County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (2):4-5
2002 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the spring 2002 KHS field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (3):6-7
To the Cimarron National Grassland, in Morton and Stevens counties.
2003 Suleiman, G. Fort Riley herpetofaunal count. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):11-12
2003 Smith, Hobart M., David Chiszar, Curtis M. Eckerman, and Harlan D. Walley. The taxonomic status of the Mexican Hognose Snake Heterodon kennerlyi Kennicott (1860). Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):17-20
2003 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2003 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (5):3-4
2003 Platt, Dwight R. Lizards and snakes (Order Squamata) of Harvey County, Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (6):13-20
2004 Schmidt, Curtis J. Natural history and status of the exploited Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in western Kansas and a herpetofaunal inventory of the Smoky Valley Ranch, Logan County, Kansas. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. pp.
2004 Delisle, Jennifer M. and William H. Busby. Biological inventory for vertebrates at Fort Larned National Historic Site of the southern plains network. Natural Heritage Inventory, Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 61pp.
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2004 spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (9):2
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2004 KHS spring field trip to Logan County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (10):2-7
2004 Edgren, Richard A. Heterodon kennerlyi revisited. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (11):16-17
2004 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the KHS 2004 fall feld trip . Journal of Kansas Herpetology (12):15-16
2005 Brunson, Ken. Kansas species in need of conservation (SINC). Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 71pp.
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Addendum report to biological inventory of the sandsage prairie near Holcomb, Kansas. Sunflower Electric Cooperative, Hays, Kansas. 31pp.
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2007 Taggart, Travis W., Joseph T. Collins, and Curtis J. Schmidt. Estimates of amphibian, reptile, and turtle mortality if Phostoxin is applied to 10,000 acres of prairie dog burrows in Logan County, Kansas. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. 5pp.
2007 Taggart, Travis W. A biological inventory of the Sunflower Electric Site near Holcomb, Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology 23():11-16
2009 Maxell, Bryce A., Paul Hendricks, M. T. Gates, and S. Lenard. Montana amphibian and reptile status assessment, literature review, and conservation plan. Montana Natural Heritage Program, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 642pp.
2010 Miller, Larry L. Investigation of the Checkered Garter Snake in Kansas with notes on other Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles encountered. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas. 31pp.
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
Joseph T. Collins fourth Kansas herpetology. <Need to get species total and principal differences with previous 'version' (= Collins 1993)>
2010 Murrow, Daniel G. Kansas Herpetological Society spring field trip. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (33):2-3
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 spring field trip to beheld in Chautauqua County. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (37):5-7
2011 Taggart, Travis W. and Daniel Murrow. KHS to conduct summer field trip to western Kansas. Journal of Kansas Herpetology (38):5
2011 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the Kansas Herpetological Society 2011 Summer Field Trip to Scott State Park Journal of Kansas Herpetology (39):2
2012 Rohweder, Megan R. Spatial conservation prioritization of Kansas for terrestrial vertebrates. Thesis. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas. 151pp.
2012 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada: Second Edition, Revised and Updated. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 152pp.
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2012 Summer Field Trip to Meade County State Park. Collinsorum 2(3/4):3
2013 Taggart, Travis W. KHS 2013 Summer Field Trip to Coldwater Lake, Comanche County. Collinsorum 2(3/4):5
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Results of the 2014 KHS summer field trip to Morton County and adjacent Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Collinsorum 3(2-4):12
2014 Taggart, Travis W. Recent scientific and standard English name changes effecting the Kansas herpetofauna. Collinsorum 3(2-4):9-10
2015 Rohweder, Megan R. Kansas Wildlife Action Plan. Ecological Services Section, Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism in cooperation with the Kansas Biological Survey. 176pp.
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
2016 Jurestovsky, Derek J. New Records of Colubrids from the late Hemphillian Gray Fossil Site of Northeastern Tennessee. Thesis. East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee. 68pp.
2016 Taggart, Travis W. Spring 2016 KHS field trip to Clark County was a soggy success. Collinsorum 5(2-3):2-3
2017 Crother, Brian I. (editor) Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Eighth edition. Herpetological Circulars (43):1-102
2019 Powell, Robert, Joseph T Collins, and Errol D Hooper Jr. Key to the Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada. Third Edition. Univ Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 192pp.
2020 Daniel, Richard E. and Brian S. Edmond. Atlas of Missouri Amphibians and Reptiles for 2019. Privately printed, Columbia, Missouri. 86pp.
2020 Riedle, J. Daren. Revisiting Kansas Herpetological Society field trip and Herp Count data: Distributional patterns and trend data of Kansas amphibians and reptiles. Collinsorum 9(1):7-16
2020 Fischer, Annie. Species Profile: Hognose Snakes. Kansas Wildlife and Parks Magazine July-August():44
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Morton County: KHS-2020-12. Collinsorum 9(3):13
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Seward County: KHS-2020-13. Collinsorum 9(3):13
2021 Taggart, Travis W and Sarah L Taggart. Herp Count: Stanton County: KHS-2020-10. Collinsorum 9(3):13
2021 Jurestovsky, Derek J. Small colubroids from the Late Hemphillian Gray Fossil Site of Northeastern Tennessee. Journal of Herpetology 55(4):422-431
Mention of Heterodon fossils from Kansas localities.
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Travis W. Taggart © 1999-2024 — w/ Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State University