TEXAS TOAD
Anaxyrus speciosus (Girard, 1854)
ăn-ăx-ī-rŭs — spē-cē-ō-sŭs


Conservation Status:

State: None

Federal: None
NatureServe State: SNA - Not Applicable
NatureServe National: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Global: G5 - Secure
CITES: None

An adult Texas Toad from Greer County, Oklahoma. Image © Travis W. Taggart.

Description:
Texas Toads are gray to yellowish with many low warts, none noticeably larger than the others. The hind legs dim cross bands. The belly is uniform yellow to white and unspotted. The cranial crests are very low and barely discernible. Texas Toad measure 2 – 3 1/2 in (52–91 mm) in snout–vent length, females are larger than males.

Distribution:
Not recorded in Kansas. Cope (1889) reported this species from "Kansas" based on two specimens from the USNM (which no longer exist (Smith 1934)). Bragg and Smith (1943) reported on young specimens of this species taken at the edge of a cattle tank near Buffalo, Harper County, Oklahoma (15 miles south of the Kansas border adjacent to Clark and Comanche counties, Kansas).
(, Museum Voucher) (, Observation) (, Literature Record)
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  • Occurrence Summary:  
  • 0
    Records 
  • 0
    Museum Vouchers 
  • 0
    Other Observations 
Some county occurrences indicated below may be too imprecise to map above.
County Breakdown: County Name (# occurrences):


Natural History:
Texas Toads are a desert/grassland species found near with permanent water sources (streams, irrigation ditches, flooded fields, watering tanks, and ephemeral pools). They prefer sandy soils, where they burrow, and clayey soils that are frequently inundated. Habitat characteristics for adults are likely similar to those of juveniles. It is crucial for adults to take refuge in sites with relatively high humidity and/or water holding capacity to prevent desiccation during dry periods that can last for several months.

Occurrence Activity:
The blue dates denote chorusing actity. The red dates are other occurrences. The darker a date is, the greater the relative number of observations for that date.
Chorusing:

Audio recording by Keith Coleman.

Chorusing Phenology: The black outlined dots denote the Julian date (day of the year; 1 January = 1 to 31 December = 365) an observation was made. The thin red line depicts the range of dates between the beginning of the first, and end of the fourth quartile (excluding outliers; Tukey method). The thick light blue bar represents the second and third quartile (interquartile range; the middle 50% of all observations). Only one observation per Julian date is included in the graphs; so a date with multiple observations carries the same weight as a date with only one observation. The vertical bars correspond to the 12 months of the year; January through December.
# Unique Obervations: ; Range: ; Interquartile range: ;

Observation Type: (of recorded types)
Remarks:
This species is of doubtful occurrence in Kansas. It should be sought in Clark County, Kansas.

Bibliography:
1889 Cope, Edward D The batrachia of North America. Bulletin of the United States National Museum (34):1-525
1906 Dickerson, Mary C. The Frog Book; North American Toads and Frogs, with Study of the Habits and Life Histories of Those of the Northeastern States. Doubleday, Page & Company, New York, New York. 253pp.
1933 Smith, Hobart M. The Amphibians of Kansas Thesis. University of Kansas, Lawrence. 383pp.
1934 Smith, Hobart M. The Amphibians of Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 15(4):377-527
1943 Bragg, Arthur N. and Charles Clinton Smith. Observations on the ecology and natural history of anura IV: The ecological distribution of toads in Oklahoma. Ecology 24(3):285-309
1950 Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas. University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication (2):336
1974 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (1):283 pp
1974 Perry, Janice. KHS members take trip to southwest Kansas. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (3):2-3
1977 Grow, David. Clark County visited by the Society. Kansas Herpetological Society Newsletter (19):1-2
1982 Collins, Joseph T. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. 2nd edition. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series (8):
1991 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
1993 Collins, Joseph T. and Suzanne L. Collins. Amphibians and Reptiles in Kansas. Third Edition. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Lawrence. 397pp.
1998 Conant, Roger and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. pp.
2006 Taggart, Travis W. Distribution and status of Kansas herpetofauna in need of information. State Wildlife Grant T7. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt. vii + 106pp.
2010 Collins, Joseph T., Suzanne L. Collins, and Travis W. Taggart. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of Kansas Eagle Mountain Publishing., Provo, Utah. 400pp.
2016 Powell, Robert, Roger Conant, and Joseph T. Collins. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 494pp.
Account Last Updated:
8/3/2020 11:46:34 AM